Objective. To evaluate the axonal growth and induction of a painf

Objective. To evaluate the axonal growth and induction of a painful neuropeptide, substance P (SP), using rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and degenerated human disc cells in vitro.

Summary of Background Data. Degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral disc is a cause of low back pain. The pathologic mechanism

is thought to be sensory nerve ingrowth into the inner layers of the degenerated intervertebral disc; however, the precise patho-mechanism has not been clarified.

Methods. The nucleus pulposus (NP)and annulus fibrosus (AF) of human intervertebral discs were harvested from patients with discogenic low back pain. Extracted medium from human degenerative intervertebral discs was cultured with neurons of rat DRGs. We evaluated the promotion of axonal growth and SP induction of DRG neurons in extracted medium Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor from the NP and AF using immunocytochemistry.

Results.

The average length of growing axons in the NP and AF was significantly longer than that in the control (P < 0.005). That in the NP was significantly longer than that in the AF. The average length of growing axons in the NP was significantly shortened after anti-nerve growth factor (NGF)beta treatment (P < 0.005); however, that selleck chemical in the AF was not (P < 0.05). The percentage of SP-immunoreactive cells with growing axons was significantly higher only in the NP group compared with the control and AF groups (P < 0.005), and anti-NGF beta treatment decreased the expression of SP in the NP group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion. Extracted medium from the NP and AF promoted axonal growth. Furthermore, NGF from the NP promoted axonal growth and induced SP. These in vitro results may suggest that NGF from the NP promotes the growth of sensory nerve fibers innervating the degenerated intervertebral disc and may induce SP related with pain transmission.”
“Bone repair and regeneration is a dynamic process that involves a complex interplay between the (1) ground substance; (2) cells; and (3) milieu. Each constituent is integral to the final product, but it is often helpful to consider each component individually. While bone tissue engineering has capitalized

on a number of breakthrough technologies, https://www.selleckchem.com/HSP-90.html one of the most valued advancements is the incorporation of mesenchymal stem cells (SCs) into bone tissue engineering applications. With this new idea, however, came new found problems of guiding SC differentiation. Moreover, investigators are still working to understand which SCs source produces optimal bone formation in vitro and in vivo. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal SCs and adipose-derived SCs have been researched most extensively, but other SC sources, including dental pulp, blood, umbilical cord blood, epithelial cells reprogrammed to become induced pluripotent SCs, among others, are being investigated. In Part II of this review series, we discuss the variety of cell types (e.g.

3072752]”
“Background: DNA methylation changes are potential

3072752]”
“Background: DNA methylation changes are potential pathways of environmentally induced health effects. SB202190 We investigated whether exposure to ambient concentrations of NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and O-3 and traffic parameters were associated with global DNA methylation in blood of healthy adults.

Methods: 48 non-smoking adults (25 males) with a median age of 39 years were sampled in winter and summer. Global DNA methylation in whole blood (% 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine, %5mdC) was analyzed with HPLC. Exposure to air pollutants at the home address was assessed using interpolated NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and O-3 concentrations for

various exposure windows (60- to 1-day moving average exposures and yearly averages) and GIS-based traffic parameters. Associations between pollutants and %5mdC were tested with multiple mixed effects regression models.

Results: Average %5mdC (SD) was 4.30 (0.08) in winter and 4.29 (0.08) in summer. Men had higher %5mdC compared check details to women both in winter (4.32 vs. 4.26) and summer (431 vs. 4.27). When winter and summer data were analyzed together, various NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 moving average exposures were associated with changes in %5mdC (95% CI) ranging from -0.04 (-0.09

to 0.00) to -0.14 (-0.28 to 0.00) per IQR increase in pollutant. NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and 03 moving average exposures were associated with decreased %5mdC (95% Cl) varying between -0.01 (-0.03 to 0.00) and -0.17 (-0.27 to -0.06) per IQR increase in pollutant in summer but not in winter.

Conclusion: Decreased global DNA methylation in whole blood was associated with exposure to NO2, PM,,,, PM2.5 and O-3 at the home addresses of non- adults. Most effects were observed for the 5- to 30-day

moving average exposures. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Improved understanding and advances in treatment regimens have led to increased longevity among patients diagnosed with BKM120 extremity soft tissue sarcomas. Limb salvage techniques and implants have improved and continue to evolve to accommodate the increasing demands and survival of these patients.

Methods: The current report is a review of the literature for recent advancements in techniques, implant design, and outcomes in the field of limb salvage therapy using segmental megaprostheses for the treatment of extremity sarcomas. We report on our experience in this field utilizing a classification system of failure mechanisms to outline to discuss current controversies in management.

Results: Five mechanisms of failure have been identified: soft-tissue failure, aseptic loosening, structural failure, infection, and tumor progression. Infection was the most common mode of failure in our series, accounting for 34% of cases. Soft-tissue failure occurred most commonly in the joints that depend heavily on periarticular muscles and ligaments for stability due to their high degree of functional range of motion.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of varying levels of alcohol co

Objective: To evaluate the impact of varying levels of alcohol consumption on depressive symptoms over time in patients with and without HIV infection.

Design: We used data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). We used generalized estimating equation models to assess the association of alcohol-related selleck chemicals llc categories, as a fixed effect, on the time-varying outcome of depressive symptoms.

Participants: VACS is a prospectively enrolled cohort study of HIV-infected patients and age-, race- and site-matched HIV uninfected

patients.

Main measures: Hazardous, binge drinking, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence were defined using standard criteria. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9).

Key results: Among Napabucasin price the 2446 patients, 19% reported past but not current alcohol use, 50% non-hazardous drinking, 8% hazardous drinking, 14% binge drinking, and 10% met criteria for alcohol or dependence. At baseline, depressive symptoms were higher in hazardous and binge drinkers than in past and nonhazardous drinkers (OR = 2.65; CI = 1.50/4.69; p < .001) and similar to those with abuse or dependence. There was no difference in the association between alcohol-related category and depressive symptoms by HIV status (OR = 0.99; CI -.83/1.18; p = .88). Hazardous drinkers were 2.53 (95% CI = 1.34/4.81) times

and binge drinkers were 2.14(95% CI = 1.49/3.07) times more likely to meet criteria for depression when compared to non-hazardous drinkers. The associations between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms persisted over three years and were responsive to changes in alcohol-related categories.

Conclusions: HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected hazardous and binge drinkers have depressive symptoms that are more severe than non-hazardous and non-drinkers and similar selleckchem to those with alcohol abuse or dependence. Patients who switch to a higher or lower level of drinking experience a similar alteration in their depressive symptoms. Interventions to decrease unhealthy

alcohol consumption may improve depressive symptoms. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This review addresses selected aspects of the management of severe healthcare-associated infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including the limitations of current therapy, potential alternative agents, new therapeutic options, clinical approaches to MRSA bacteraemia/endocarditis and ventilator-associated pneumonia, and strategies to improve outcomes in patients with severe MRSA infections.”
“Background: The cardiac pacemaker (PM) implantation rate per million is high. Earlier studies have found interference to PMs by electromagnetic fields. The aim of the study is to investigate disturbances in cardiac PM using a human-shaped phantom in electric and magnetic fields of 400-kV power lines.

Study Design: Retrospective case review and histopathologic analy

Study Design: Retrospective case review and histopathologic analysis.

Setting: Tertiary referral center.

Patients: Records of 17 patients buy ICG-001 with surgically managed PA cholesterol granulomas were reviewed. Histopathologic analysis was performed on temporal bones of 11 patients with PA cholesterol granulomas from the Temporal Bone repository at the House Research Institute.

Interventions: Surgical drainage of PA cholesterol granulomas; follow-up radiologic

imaging (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging), when available.

Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome is demonstrated maintenance of a PA outflow drainage pathway after the surgical drainage procedure as assessed by radiologic imaging, available histopathology, and/or recurrence of symptoms indicating failure of maintenance. Other measures include need for revision surgery and histopathology findings.

Results: A majority (65%) of patients exhibited maintenance of their PA drainage pathway. Histopathologic evidence suggests that the PA drainage pathway can be maintained for many years after surgical drainage. Recurrence of symptoms was related to obstruction of the drainage pathway by fibrous tissue and/or granulomatous tissue. Placement of a stent improved the patient’s chance of remaining

symptom-free, with recurrence of symptoms and revision surgery required in only 2 stent cases (18%) as compared with 83% of those with no stent (p <= 0.035). Histopathologic evidence for the exposed marrow theory of PA cholesterol granulomas was found.

Conclusion: MS-275 inhibitor The majority of patients

who undergo surgical drainage of PA cholesterol granulomas remain symptom-free after surgical drainage. Histopathologic analysis of temporal bone specimens provides evidence supporting the exposed marrow theory of PA cholesterol granuloma formation. Loss of patency of the PA drainage pathway may be an important predictor for symptomatic recurrence of PA cholesterol granulomas. Placement of a find more stent may decrease the likelihood of symptomatic recurrence.”
“Objective: “”Helping Babies Breathe”" (HBB) is a simulation-based one-day course developed to help reduce neonatal mortality globally. The study objectives were to (1) determine the effect on practical skills and management strategies among providers using simulations seven months after HBB training, and (2) describe neonatal management in the delivery room during the corresponding time period before/after a one-day HBB training in a rural Tanzanian hospital.

Methods: The one-day HBB training was conducted by Tanzanian master instructors in April 2010. Two simulation scenarios; “”routine care”" and “”neonatal resuscitation”" were performed by 39 providers before (September 2009) and 27 providers after (November 2010) the HBB training.

Main results: tDCS was associated with

Main results: tDCS was associated with Selleck VX770 a significant signal power increase in the lower frequencies most evident in the signal spectrum of the EEG channel closest to the stimulation electrode. Stimulation-dependent signal power increase exhibited a decay of 12 dB per decade, leaving frequencies above 9 Hz unaffected. Analysis of BMI control performance did not indicate a difference between blocks and tDCS conditions.

Conclusion: Application of tDCS during learned EEG-based self-regulation of brain oscillations above 9 Hz is feasible and safe, and might improve applicability of BMI systems.”
“SETTING: The

seasonality of tuberculosis (TB) incidence suggests that the risk of infection or development of disease has a seasonal component.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with seasonal patterns of TB disease in the Netherlands by splitting notifications according to origin (natives vs. non-natives) and disease site (pulmonary TB [PTB] vs. extra-pulmonary TB [EPTB]). We focus on the presence of a seasonal peak, as much debate has centred on factors enhancing transmission vs. disease development.

DESIGN: Monthly notifications were derived from culture sample dates of all cases between 1993 and 2008. We fitted seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models to the time series. Seasonal decomposition I-BET-762 revealed seasonal trends. To

assess the seasonality of the peak, we repeated the analysis omitting December (trough) notifications.

RESULTS: TB notifications show a histone deacetylase activity seasonal pattern, with a peak in spring and a trough in winter, which is present in both PTB and EPTB and in both natives and non-natives. However, when excluding December

notifications, seasonality only holds in non-native EPTB and non-native TB notifications.

CONCLUSION: A seasonal peak in TB notifications (March-June) is apparent in non-natives, but is absent in natives. This peak is driven by the seasonality of EPTB notifications, which are highest in June-July. The contribution of winter crowding is discussed. Vitamin D deficiency, enhancing disease development at the end of winter-early spring, seems the most likely factor explaining the yearly peak in EPTB.”
“The experience of current outcomes influences future decisions in various ways. The neural mechanism of this phenomenon may help to clarify the determinants of decision-making. In this study, thirty-nine young adults finished a risky gambling task by choosing between a high- and a low-risk option in each trial during electroencephalographic data collection. We found that risk-taking strategies significantly modulated mean amplitudes of the event-related potential (ERP) component P3, particularly at the central scalp. The event-related spectral perturbation and the inter-trial coherence measurements of the independent component analysis (ICA) data indicated that the “”stay”" vs.

Selection of a starting dose for human studies can be difficult.

Selection of a starting dose for human studies can be difficult. Species differences in pharmacology need to be considered. Various metrics are available for scaling from animals to humans. Optimal dose selection should ensure uniform mAb exposure across

all individuals. Traditional approaches such as flat dosing and variable dosing based upon body surface area or weight should be supported by pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior, including target antigen and concurrent disease states. The use of loading doses or dose adjustments to improve clinical response is also a consideration.

The evaluation of drug interactions requires innovative designs. Due to the pharmacokinetic properties of mAbs, interacting BKM120 solubility dmso drugs may need to be administered for protracted periods. Consequently, population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model-based approaches are often implemented to evaluate mAb drug interactions.”
“OBJECTIVE: Cytoreductive surgery is associated with extensive morbidity and may delay chemotherapy. We examined the associations among cytoreduction, perioperative complications, and delay or omission of chemotherapy.

METHODS: Women aged 65 years or older with stage III-IV ovarian cancer who were treated with surgery from 1991-2005 and recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database were examined. Selleckchem HM781-36B We estimated the influence of extended cytoreduction

as well as the occurrence of major perioperative complications on receipt and timing of chemotherapy and survival.

RESULTS: Among 3,991 patients, 479 (12%) failed to receive chemotherapy. Of those treated with chemotherapy, 2,527 (72%) initiated treatment within 6 weeks of surgery, 838 (24%) within 6-12 weeks, and 147 (4%) more than 12 weeks after surgery. In a multivariable model, older

patients, those with comorbidities, mucinous tumors, buy NU7441 and stage IV neoplasms were more likely not to receive chemotherapy (P<.05). Extended cytoreduction and the occurrence of postoperative complications were not associated with omission of chemotherapy but were associated with chemotherapy delay. For every 14 patients who underwent one extended procedure and for every 13 who had two extended procedures, one patient had a delay in receipt of chemotherapy. For every 14 patients who had one complication and for every four who had two complications, one patient had a delay in receipt of chemotherapy. The occurrence of more than two perioperative complications (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-1.49) and initiation of chemotherapy more than 12 weeks after surgery (hazard ratio 1.32, 95% CI 1.07-1.64) were associated with decreased survival.

CONCLUSION: Extended cytoreductive surgery and perioperative complications significantly delay initiation but do not increase the chance of omission of chemotherapy for women with ovarian cancer.

There were no significant differences in the distribution of FBs

There were no significant differences in the distribution of FBs between the left (41.8%) and right (40.5%) bronchia. There is no difference in the distribution of FBs among the three groups either. The data show that the youngest cohort of patients (0-1 years) is the most likely to be sent to the hospital to receive

treatment within 24 h of aspiration (50%) (P < 0.01). Five patients (1.58%) died as the result of FBA.

Conclusions: FBAs of animal-derived FBs (especially animal bones) are very common in infants Tariquidar mw in southern China. Children between the ages of 1 and 2 years are most likely to suffer from FBA. FBA in children under the age of 3 years carries significant hazards, including morbidity and mortality. Asphyxia and/or cardiopulmonary arrest is prone to occur shortly after FBA in infants, but these events can occur days later in older children after FBA because of delays in the diagnosis and/or treatment of this condition. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In the context of an expanding tuberculosis (TB) and human click here immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in South Africa, enforcing involuntary admission for extensively drug-resistant TB raises many ethical

and human rights dilemmas, principally because it trades off the human rights of individuals for the public good. However, the dichotomy may as well be conceptualised as being about competing rights claims and the rights obligations

of the state to control infectious diseases. Superficial analyses of the ethical and rights issues in managing drug-resistant TB patients are more likely to do harm than good. This paper argues for a more nuanced dialogue about these difficult policy choices, providing a more careful human rights analysis, using established analytical frameworks, to tease Selleckchem PD173074 out the possible criteria that could justify limitation of individual rights. Generally, only in very restricted situations, where there is a clearly defined risk to one or more third parties, based on evidence, and conditional on careful consideration of available alternatives, should involuntary admission be considered. Community-based strategies will need to be developed to cope with infection control without forced admission for most cases, particularly in high-prevalence settings typical of many developing countries. Even when involuntary admission is indicated, strict adherence to administratively just procedures would be required. Confinement has no place as a strategy for the broader control of the epidemic, which is contingent on sustained commitment to improved health system functioning and action to address the abysmal investment in research and development for drugs for neglected diseases worldwide.

)

) RepSox R.Br latex. The isolation procedure required two cation exchange chromatography steps on 50 mM Na-acetate buffer (pH 5.0)

CM-Sepharose Fast Flow and 25 mM Na-phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) Resource-S, respectively. The protein purity was confirmed by an unique N-terminal sequence [ATFTIRNNCPYTI-WAAAVPGGGRRLNSGGTWTINVAPGTA]. The osmotin (CpOsm) appeared as a single band (20,100 Da) in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and as two spots in two-dimensional electrophoresis (pI 8.9 and 9.1). Both polypeptides were further identified by mass spectrometry as two osmotin isoforms with molecular masses of 22,340 and 22,536 Da. The CpOsm exerted antifungal activity against Fusarium solani (IC(50) = 67.0 mu g mL(-1)), Neurospora sp. (IC(50) = 57.5 mu g mL(-1)) and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (IC(50)= 32.1 mu g mL(-1)). However, this activity was lost when the protein was previously treated with a reducing agent (DTT, Dithiothreitol)

suggesting the presence CCI-779 price of disulfide bounds stabilizing the protein. The occurrence of osmotin in latex substantiates the defensive role of these fluids. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Gas hold-up (epsilon(g)), sauter mean bubble diameter (d(32)) and oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a) were evaluated at four different alkane concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 vol.%) in water over the SN-38 mouse range of superficial gas velocity (u(g)) of (1.18-23.52) x 10(-3) m/s at 25 degrees C in a laboratory-scale bubble column bioreactor. Immiscible hydrocarbons (n-decane, n-tridecane and n-hexadecane) were utilized in the experiments as impurity. A type of anionic surfactant was also employed in order to investigate the effect

of addition of surfactant to organic-aqueous systems on sauter mean bubble diameter, gas hold-up and oxygen transfer coefficient. Influence of addition of alkanes on oxygen transfer coefficient and gas hold-up, was shown to be dependent on the superficial gas velocity. At superficial gas velocity below 0.5 x 10(-3) m/s, addition of alkane in air-water medium has low influence on oxygen transfer coefficient and also gas hold-up, whereas; at higher gas velocities slight addition of alkane increases oxygen transfer coefficient and also gas hold-up. Increase in concentration of alkane resulted in increase in oxygen transfer coefficient and gas hold-up and roughly decrease in sauter mean bubble diameter, which was attributed to an increase in the coalescence-inhibiting tendency in the presence of surface contaminant molecules. Bubbles tend to become smaller with decreasing surface tension of hydrocarbon, thus, oxygen transfer coefficient increases due to increasing of specific gas-liquid interfacial area (a).

11, 95% CI: 0.87-1.42, P = 0.38), CV death or CV hospitalization

11, 95% CI: 0.87-1.42, P = 0.38), CV death or CV hospitalization (HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.33, P = 0.035), and CV death and HF hospitalization (HR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.06-1.51, P = 0.008).

ConclusionsAnemia modestly is associated with increased rates of death, hospitalization, and HF exacerbation in patients with chronic HFREF. After adjusting for other important covariates, anemia is independently associated

with an excess hazard for all-cause mortality and all-cause hospitalization. Anemia is also associated with combinations of CV death and CV/HF hospitalizations as composite endpoints.”
“Systems selleck compound to assess the toxicity of materials used in human assisted reproduction Currently lack efficiency and/or Selleckchem Ro-3306 sufficient discriminatory power. The development of 1-cell CBA/B6 F1 hybrid mouse embryos to blastocysts expressed as blastocyst rate (BR). is used to measure toxicity. The embryos were divided into control and test groups, and were exposed to either control medium or to a potentially toxic test medium. Inferences on toxicity were based on differences in BR between the two groups. The mouse embryo assay followed a stratified (Mouse), randomized (embryo),

and balanced (equal number of embryos per group and per mouse) design. The number of embryos needed was calculated using power analysis. The basal BR of the hybrid strain was determined in a historical population. Sixty-nine mouse embryos per group were required to detect toxic materials with sufficient sensitivity and to account for the considerable inter-mouse variation in blastocyst development. Fifty-two samples, divided over batches of seven SC79 different products were tested before use in the study IVF centre and five of these were found to be toxic. This test system, presented as the Nijmegen Mouse embryo assay (NMEA). can be used to detect embryo-toxic materials in daily IVF practice, and this report may provide a starting point for standardization.”
“Purpose

As the number of elderly patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung carcinoma

(NSCLC) increases, the number of these patients receiving chemotherapy also increases. However, limited data exists regarding the use of chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC patients who are 75 years of age or older.

Materials and Methods

Between May 2002 and October 2008, data for 48 advanced NSCLC patients who were 75 years of age or older who had been treated with chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed.

Results

The median age of study participants at the time of first line chemotherapy was 76 years (range, 75 to 87 years) and their median Charlson comorbidity index was 2 (range, 1 to 4). Of the total 48 patients, 43 patients (90%) were treated by platinum-based doublet as a first line chemotherapy regimen. Median progression free survival for first line chemotherapy was 5.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.93 to 6.47 months) with an overall response rate of 33.3%.

Peripheral blood smears were made hourly in the first 4 hours, 8

Peripheral blood smears were made hourly in the first 4 hours, 8 h, 16 h, 24 h, and daily on days 2-7, and on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 for microscopic identification and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum.

Results: A total of 193 children were randomized AZD6244 purchase to receive either AL (97) or AA (96). In children that received both medications, early response of peripheral parasitaemia showed that 42% of children who received AL and 36.7% of those who received AA had an immediate rise in peripheral parasitaemia

(0-4 h after treatment) followed by a rapid fall. The rise in parasitaemia was significant and seems to suggest a mobilization of asexual parasites from the deep tissues to the periphery. Days 3, 7, 14, 28, and 42 cure rates in the per protocol (PP) population were >90% in both groups of children. Both drug combinations were well tolerated with minimal

side effects.

Conclusion: The study showed the high efficacy of AL and AA in Nigerian children. In addition the study demonstrated the mobilisation of asexual parasites from the deep to the periphery in the early hours of commencing ACT treatment Selleckchem RepSox in a subset of patients in both study groups. It is unclear whether the early parasite dynamics discovered in this study play any role in the development of drug resistance and thus it is important to further evaluate this discovery. It may be useful for studies investigating delay in parasite clearance of artemisinin derivatives as a way of monitoring the development of resistance

to artemisinin to assess the early effects of the drugs on the parasites.”
“Etanercept check details is singular among anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) agents, for being a soluble antibody to both TNF and lymphtoxin-alpha. The long-term neutralization of two cachexins by etanercept would theoretically compromise early detection of malignancy. This case reports a patient who was treated by etanercept for 21 months due to ankylosing spondylitis. Metastatic malignancy of unknown origin developed, and silently led the patient to lethal hepatic rupture. With an example of a malignancy masking effect of soluble TNF receptor, this article questions a need for vigilant attention to de novo carcinoma during the therapy, and calls for refined strategies in modulating autoimmune diseases.”
“Aim:

Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a common cytogenetic abnormality associated with poor outcome in adults. This preliminary study, in the absence of substantial evidence, reported the prevalence of the BCR-ABL gene fusion in ALL patients by RT-PCR in Pakistan. Moreover, the prognostic significance of BCR-ABL fusion along with other characteristics was also ascertained.