Objective. To evaluate the axonal growth and induction of a painful neuropeptide, substance P (SP), using rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and degenerated human disc cells in vitro.
Summary of Background Data. Degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral disc is a cause of low back pain. The pathologic mechanism
is thought to be sensory nerve ingrowth into the inner layers of the degenerated intervertebral disc; however, the precise patho-mechanism has not been clarified.
Methods. The nucleus pulposus (NP)and annulus fibrosus (AF) of human intervertebral discs were harvested from patients with discogenic low back pain. Extracted medium from human degenerative intervertebral discs was cultured with neurons of rat DRGs. We evaluated the promotion of axonal growth and SP induction of DRG neurons in extracted medium Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor from the NP and AF using immunocytochemistry.
The average length of growing axons in the NP and AF was significantly longer than that in the control (P < 0.005). That in the NP was significantly longer than that in the AF. The average length of growing axons in the NP was significantly shortened after anti-nerve growth factor (NGF)beta treatment (P < 0.005); however, that selleck chemical in the AF was not (P < 0.05). The percentage of SP-immunoreactive cells with growing axons was significantly higher only in the NP group compared with the control and AF groups (P < 0.005), and anti-NGF beta treatment decreased the expression of SP in the NP group (P < 0.05).
Conclusion. Extracted medium from the NP and AF promoted axonal growth. Furthermore, NGF from the NP promoted axonal growth and induced SP. These in vitro results may suggest that NGF from the NP promotes the growth of sensory nerve fibers innervating the degenerated intervertebral disc and may induce SP related with pain transmission.”
“Bone repair and regeneration is a dynamic process that involves a complex interplay between the (1) ground substance; (2) cells; and (3) milieu. Each constituent is integral to the final product, but it is often helpful to consider each component individually. While bone tissue engineering has capitalized
on a number of breakthrough technologies, https://www.selleckchem.com/HSP-90.html one of the most valued advancements is the incorporation of mesenchymal stem cells (SCs) into bone tissue engineering applications. With this new idea, however, came new found problems of guiding SC differentiation. Moreover, investigators are still working to understand which SCs source produces optimal bone formation in vitro and in vivo. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal SCs and adipose-derived SCs have been researched most extensively, but other SC sources, including dental pulp, blood, umbilical cord blood, epithelial cells reprogrammed to become induced pluripotent SCs, among others, are being investigated. In Part II of this review series, we discuss the variety of cell types (e.g.