(Hemiptera: Miridae) infesting strawberries. At two sites, parasitoids were released into wild vegetation known to support Lygus spp. near conventionally-managed strawberry fields. Parasitoids were also released into Lygus spp. specific alfalfa, Medicago saliva, trap crops intercropped in two different organic strawberry fields. A relictus has persisted for over 4 years since last released into the original release site of wild vegetation and for two years at the first organic strawberry release site. Populations of A relictus were significantly correlated with Lygus spp. collected from alfalfa
trap MK-2206 manufacturer crops from 2005 to 2007 (r(2) = 0.60; p < 0.005). At this organic strawberry farm, mean densities of Lygus spp. in strawberries have fallen significantly (p < 0.05) from a pre-release seasonal high of 2.7 nymphs per 50 suctions (bug-vac machine) in 2003 to 0.8 nymphs in 2007. Bordering wild vegetation composed of winter/spring annuals at three different sites supported both native Lygus spp. and Closterotomus (=Calocoris) norvegicus, an exotic mirid in California that is attacked
by P. relictus in Europe. C norvegicus dominated sampled vegetation in spring to early summer, when Lygus spp. were nearly absent, allowing for the persistence and early build-up of A relictus at the edge of the strawberry agroecosystem, with no detectable damage to strawberries. An overwintering Angiogenesis inhibitor Population of A digoneutis has not been found in GNS-1480 chemical structure the four release sites. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A pore-scale study was conducted to understand interfacial processes contributing to the removal of crude oils from a homogeneous porous medium during surfactant-induced remediation. Synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SXM) was used to obtain high-resolution three-dimensional images of the two-fluid-phase oil/water system, and quantify temporal changes in oil blob distribution, blob morphology, and blob surface area before and after sequential surfactant flooding events. The reduction of interfacial tension in conjunction with the sufficient increase
in viscous forces as a result of surfactant flushing was most likely responsible for mobilization and recovery of the two lighter oil fractions. However, corresponding increases in viscous forces as a result of a reduction of interfacial tension were insufficient to initiate and maintain the displacement (recovery) of the heavy crude oil fraction during surfactant flushing. In contrast to the heavy oil system, changes in trapping number for the lighter fraction crude oils were sufficient to initiate mobilization as a result of surfactant flushing. Both light and medium oil fractions showed an increase in the number of blobs and total blob surface area, and a reduction in the total volume after 2 pore volumes (PVs) of surfactant flooding.