In this study, the network tree clearly showed that the recombina

In this study, the network tree clearly showed that the recombination might not be a phenomenon limited to laboratory strains and the interactions between taxa separately occurred within their own lineages of assemblages BIII and BIV. Besides the evidence from the phylogenetic network tree, more intensive analyses

were applied to further investigate the possibility of recombination from the dataset of this study. Two tests were selected based on their different assumptions for detecting the recombination to validate the evidence obtained from network tree. Four-gamete test is different from other general recombination testing methods that it is the population-specific FRAX597 method, generating to detect recombination between closely related

genotypes. However, not all recombination events are revealed by this test due to its limitation that not support JSH-23 purchase the occurrence of the recurrent or convergent mutations. To confirm the results from the four-gamete test, a robust statistical test for recombination, Φ test, was applied. This recently developed approach is designed to operates under more relax model and has been proved through empirical data analysis that it can effectively discriminate between the presence and absence of recombination in both closely and distantly related samples [31]. The positivity of the four-gamete test and the statistical significance obtained from Ureohydrolase the Φ test strongly

indicated the existence of the recombination in both subassemblages BIII and BIV. However, the recombination events were not significant when analyzing only sequence data of subassemblage BIV. This might be due to a small number of sequence data used for analysis (only 5 sequences tested). Low levels of variation among sequences limited the detection of recombination using this test [40]. Generally, there are four major goals in the study of recombination that are i) detecting evidence of recombination in a dataset, ii) identifying the mosaic sequences, iii) delineating their breakpoints, and iv) quantifying recombination [41]. Clearly, the majority of the Giardia studies, including this study, are in the early stage for recombination analysis that all evidences are indirectly detected from the mathematical and statistical models. Usually, if significant evidence for recombination can be detected, the localization of the recombination breakpoint is the next goal for the analysis. If the mosaic pattern of the sequence can be demonstrated, this will support the existence of genetic recombination in this organism. Conclusions We demonstrated that some field isolates of G. duodenalis from Thailand contained heterogeneity and sequence variations, especially those of assemblage B.

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