The present results suggest that specific attentional capacities or strategies that appear to characterize disorders such as OCD, are related to disorder-associated
traits in healthy populations as well. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Improved winter cold tolerance is widespread among small passerines resident in cold climates and is generally associated with elevated summit metabolic rate (M(sum)=maximum thermoregulatory selleck kinase inhibitor metabolic rate) and improved shivering endurance with increased reliance on lipids as fuel. Elevated M(sum) and improved cold tolerance may result from greater metabolic intensity, due to mass-specific increase in oxidative enzyme capacity, or increase in the masses of thermogenic tissues. To examine the mechanisms underlying winter increases in M(sum), we investigated seasonal changes in mass-specific and total activities of the key aerobic enzymes citrate synthase (CS) and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA-dehydrogenase (HOAD) in pectoralis, supracoracoideus and mixed leg muscles of three resident passerine species, black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus), house sparrow
(Passer domesticus), and white-breasted nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis). Activities of CS were generally higher in winter than in summer muscles for chickadees and house sparrows, but not nuthatches. Mass-specific HOAD activity was significantly elevated in winter relative Selleck R406 to summer in all muscles for chickadees, but did not vary significantly with season for sparrows or nuthatches, except for sparrow leg muscle. These results suggest that modulation of substrate flux and cellular aerobic capacity in muscle contribute to seasonal metabolic flexibility in some species and tissues, but such changes play varying roles among small passerines resident in cold climates. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Defects in p53 function, which occur frequently in human Prexasertib price cancers due to mutations in TP53 or disruptions in the p53 regulatory pathway, render cells dependent on CHK1 (Checkpoint Kinase 1) to activate cell cycle checkpoints. In the presence of DNA damage or replication stress, inhibition of CHK1 leads to “”mitotic catastrophe”"
and cell death in p53-deficient tumors while sparing p53-proficient cells. CHK1 inhibitors sensitize tumors to a variety of DNA-damaging agents or antimetabolites in preclinical models and are being evaluated in early phase clinical trials. In this review, we summarize recent advances and controversies in the development and application of CHK1 inhibitors as cancer therapeutics.”
“In animal models, serotonin (5-HT) activity contributes to stress-induced changes in behavior. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) exhibit a stress-induced change in behavior in which social defeat results in increased submissive and defensive behavior and a complete loss of normal territorial aggression directed toward a novel, non-aggressive opponent.