‘ These effects suggest alterations in reward-modulatory brain sy

‘ These effects suggest alterations in reward-modulatory brain systems. We explored the effects of 10 days of sleep deprivation in rats on the expression of striatal opioid peptide (OP) genes that subserve food motivation

and hedonic reward, and compared effects with those seen in hypothalamic energy balance-regulatory systems. Sleep-deprived (Sleep-Dep) rats were compared with yoked forced-locomotion apparatus controls (App-Controls), food-restricted rats (Food-Restrict), and unmanipulated CBL0137 controls (Home-Cage). Detection of mRNA levels with in situ hybridization revealed a subregion-specific upregulation of striatal preproenkephalin and prodynorhin gene expression in the Sleep-Dep group relative to all other groups. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and throughout neocortex was also robustly upregulated selectively in the Sleep-Dep group. In contrast, parallel gene expression changes were observed in the Sleep-Dep and Food-Restrict groups in hypothalamic energy-sensing systems (arcuate nucleus NPY was upregulated, and cocaine- SHP099 supplier and amphetamine-regulated transcript was downregulated), in alignment with leptin suppression in both groups. Together, these results reveal a novel set of sleep deprivation-induced transcriptional changes in reward-modulatory peptide systems, which are dissociable from the energy-balance

perturbations of sleep loss or the potentially stressful effects of the GSK621 mouse forced-locomotion procedure. The recruitment of telencephalic food-reward systems may provide a feeding drive highly resistant to feedback control, which could engender obesity through the enhancement

of palatable feeding.”
“The syncytium formed by Utricularia is extremely unusual and perhaps unique among angiosperm syncytia. All typical plant syncytia (articulated laticifers, amoeboid tapetum, the nucellar plasmodium of river weeds) are formed only by fusion of sporophytic cells which possess the same genetic material, unlike Utricularia in which the syncytium possesses nuclei from two different sources: cells of maternal sporophytic nutritive tissue and endosperm haustorium (both maternal and paternal genetic material). How is this kind of syncytium formed and organized and is it similar to other plant syncytial structures? We used light and electron microscopy to reconstruct the step-by-step development of the Utricularia syncytia. The syncytia of Utricularia developed through heterotypic cell fusion involving the digestion of the cell wall, and finally, heterokaryotic multinucleate structures were formed, which possessed different-sized nuclei that were not regularly arranged in the cytoplasm. We showed that these syncytia were characterized by hypertrophy of nuclei, abundant endoplasmic reticulum and organelles, and the occurrence of wall ingrowths.

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