RESULTS: A total of 23 studies met our inclusion criteria. The overall success of the induction was high, ranging from 76.4% (95%CI 68.5-83.2) to 100% (95%CI 98.5-100), while adverse events associated with sputum induction were infrequent and mild. The sensitivity of microscopy compared to culture ranged from 0% to 100%; only eight studies reported on the species of mycobacterium isolated in culture. Yield was generally higher for sputum induction compared to nasopharyngeal aspiration and gastric lavage, and compared equally well to bronchoalveolar
lavage and physiotherapy.
DISCUSSION: Sputum induction increases TB case detection and is useful selleck kinase inhibitor for people who are negative on spontaneous smear microscopy or unable to expectorate spontaneously. It is well-tolerated by children and adults, irrespective of HIV status, and can be used where culture is not available. The use of induced sputum samples with molecular tests, such as Xpert (R) MTB/RIF, warrants further investigation.”
“BACKGROUND The human face contains numerous subcutaneous compartments of fatty tissue, but neither a chin compartment nor a submental compartment have been described. Definitions of the jowl compartment vary
OBJECTIVES To investigate the borders between the subcutaneous fat compartments of the chin, submental region, and jowls.
RESULTS Distinct chin and submental compartments were identified in all cases. The chin compartment is demarcated by the mentolabial groove superiorly, the submental ligaments inferiorly,
and the labiomandibular grooves laterally. The submental compartment is demarcated from the chin by the submental ligaments, laterally by the paramedian platysma-retaining ligaments, and inferiorly by the hyoid ligament. The upper border of the jowl compartment is formed by the mandibular ligaments and the platysma-mandibular ligaments, the anterior border by the paramedian platysma-retaining ligaments, and the dorsal boundary by the submandibular platysma retaining ligaments.
CONCLUSION The chin compartment is well demarcated from adjacent compartments. The limits of the submental compartment vary. The jowl compartment is clearly demarcated from adjacent compartments.”
“Neither pain, nor depression exist as Independent phenomena per se, they are highly subjective inner states, formed by our brain and built on the bases of our experiences, cognition and emotions. Chronic pain is associated with changes in brain physiology and anatomy.