“In this paper, we report a detailed study on the evolutio

“In this paper, we report a detailed study on the evolution of surface morphology and microstructure of nonpolar a-plane GaN (a-GaN) through controlled growth interruptions. Microscopy imaging shows that the two-step a-GaN growth went through a roughening-recovery process. The first-step growth (under high V/III and high pressure) produced a rough surface with tall mesas separated by voids. The second-step growth (under low V/III and low pressure) promoted the lateral growth and filled up the voids. Striations

that formed during the island coalescence persisted throughout the second-step growth, but could be relieved selleck kinase inhibitor by an additional third-step growth. The morphological evolution was

explained according to the kinetic Wulff plots. The microstructure of the a-GaN films was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray rocking curve analysis. Most of the extended defects observed in the plan-view TEM images were I-1 type basal-plane stacking faults (BSFs) and their associated partial dislocations (PDs). It is found that the bending of PDs (at the inclined/vertical growth fronts) within the basal plane toward the m-axes was responsible for the substantial reduction in threading PDs and the increase in BSF dimension. Based on a careful correlation between the morphological evolution and the microstructure development, www.selleckchem.com/EGFR(HER).html we proposed a model explaining the possible mechanisms for the great reduction in defect density during the two-step growth process.”
“This study demonstrated that atypical virulent filaments of Listeria monocytogenes (rough variant type II and designated FR for this study), isolated from clinical specimens or generated during exposure to pulsed-plasma gas discharge in liquids, were shown to be capable of survival when engulfed by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs).

Factors shown to significantly influence the maximal respiratory burst response in PMNLs and survival of different internalized cell or filament forms of L. monocytogenes were bacterial strain, culture form, degree of opsonization find more (with and without the use of 10% serum) and composition of the bacterial growth media used before uptake by PMNLs. Opsonized regular-sized L. monocytogenes cells grown on blood agar (BA) elicited the greatest respiratory burst response and survived best in PMNLs. The filamentous (FR) and multiple cell chain (MCR) rough variants were significantly less susceptible to uptake and survival in PMNLs. Supplementation of tryptone soya agar with hemin resulted in significantly reduced chemiluminescence responses in phagocytosing PMNLs compared with the maximal levels observed from prior bacterial growth on BA or brain heart infusion agar that also contained a source of iron.

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