Interestingly, the dramatic effect of atorvastatin was only parti

Interestingly, the dramatic effect of atorvastatin was only partially mimicked by other statins including pravastatin, fluvastatin, mevastatin, and simvastatin. Furthermore, activation of CXCR7 by SDF-1, TC14012, or I-TAC all prompted macrophage migration, which was significantly suppressed by atorvastatin

Selleckchem MAPK inhibitor treatment, but not by the CXCR4 antagonist. We conclude that atorvastatin modulates macrophage migration by down-regulating CXCR7 expression, suggesting a new CXCR7-dependent mechanism of atorvastatin to benefit atherosclerosis treatment beyond its lipid lowering effect. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Ca2+ signaling is the astrocyte form of excitability and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role as an intracellular Ca2+ store. Since the subcellular distribution of the ER influences Ca2+ signaling, we compared the arrangement of ER in astrocytes of hippocampus tissue and astrocytes in cell culture by electron microscopy. While the ER was usually located in close apposition to the plasma membrane in astrocytes in situ, the ER in cultured astrocytes was close to the nuclear membrane. Activation of metabotropic receptors linked to release of Ca2+

from ER stores triggered distinct responses in cultured and it? situ astrocytes. In culture, Ca2+ sionals were commonly first recorded close to the nucleus and with a delay at peripheral regions of the cells. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOC) as a route to buy Cl-amidine refill the Ca2+ stores could be easily identified in cultured astrocytes as the Zn2+-sensitive component of the Ca2+ signal. In contrast, such a Zn2+-sensitive component was not recorded in astrocytes from hippocampal slices despite of evidence for SOC. Our data indicate that both, astrocytes in situ and in vitro express SOC necessary

to refill stores, but that a SOC-related signal is not recorded in the cytoplasm of astrocytes in situ since the stores are close to the plasma membrane and the refill does not affect cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights Selleckchem GDC 0068 reserved.”
“Background: The delta opioid receptor (DOR) is a promising target to treat multiple indications, including alcoholism, anxiety, and nonmalignant pain. The potential of the DORs has been underappreciated, in part, due to relatively low functional expression of these receptors in naive states. However, chronic exposure to stress, opioids, and inflammation can induce a redistribution of DORs to the cell surface where they can be activated. Previously, DORs were shown to be selectively/exclusively present in spinal cord circuits mediating mechanical sensitivity but not those mediating thermal nociception under naive conditions.

We integrated laboratory population experiments, behavioural obse

We integrated laboratory population experiments, behavioural observations and simulation modelling

to investigate the role of reproductive interference on species exclusion between MEAM1 and MED in China. In mixed cohorts of the two species MEAM1 always excluded MED in a few generations when the initial proportion of MEAM1 was bigger than 0.25. Even when the initial proportion of MEAM1 was only 0.10, however, MEAM1 still had a higher probability of excluding MED than that for MED to exclude MEAM1. Importantly, buy S3I-201 we show that as MEAM1 increased in relative abundance, MED populations became increasingly male-biased. Detailed behavioural observations confirmed that MEAM1 showed a stronger reproductive interference than MED, leading to reduced frequency of copulation and female progeny production in MED. Using simulation modelling, we linked our behavioural observations with exclusion experiments to show that interspecific asymmetric reproductive interference predicts the rate of species exclusion of MED by MEAM1. These findings not only reveal the importance of reproductive interference in the competitive interactions between

the two invasive whiteflies as well as the detailed behavioural mechanisms, but also provide a valuable framework against which the effects of other factors mediating species exclusion can be explored.”
“Background: Attempts to facilitate corneal epithelial penetration of riboflavin (Rb) without de-epithelization, so far, include the use of penetration enhancers, to devitalize corneal epithelium in order to disturb tight epithelial interjunctional complexes and zonulae occludentes. Though such approaches result in sufficient epithelial permeability of Rb to guarantee efficacy of CXL procedure, they lack the evidences of safety. Prodrug with improved lipophilicity targeted

toward esterases and amidases has proven to be an effective Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor and promising approach to overcome lipophilic corneal epithelial barrier. Objectives: Fast-dissolving ocular films of newly synthesized and characterized riboflavin lipid conjugate (RbLDC) were developed to overcome corneal epithelial barrier resistance for treatment of keratoconus. The safety concern of the film was assessed by in vitro hemolytic toxicity and in vitro apoptosis detection for its safe clinical use. Results: The optimized film was tough, flexible and dissolved rapidly within 36.86 s in simulated tear fluid, pH 7.4. FE-SEM/EDX showed smooth surfaces of films and evidenced the quantitative elemental similarity, indicating drug homogeneity. The permeation profile of F18 demonstrated 13.28-fold increased permeation of RbLDC relative to Rb solution across intact cornea. Safety was confirmed by 3.74% hemolysis and 10% apoptosis. Conclusion: Safe and efficient RbLDC fast-dissolving ocular films capable of overcoming corneal epithelial barrier resistance to avoid surgical intervention of corneal epithelial debridement were developed.

Hence, the collapse in the TSL sensitivity at 750 degrees C is du

Hence, the collapse in the TSL sensitivity at 750 degrees C is due to structural change or structural disorderedness. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: EGFR signaling pathway To evaluate the predictive value of a set of laboratory

markers for the assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis patients.\n\nStudy Design: Cross-sectional study.\n\nPlace and Duration of Study: Baqai Medical University, Combined Military Hospital, Malir, Karachi, from November 2006 to May 2008.\n\nMethodology: Twenty laboratory parameters were measured in 100 treatment-nave chronic viral hepatitis patients who also had liver biopsy performed. Descriptive statistics, areas under the ROC’s curves, and multivariate BEZ235 in vitro logistic regression analysis identified a fibrosis panel, a set of five most useful markers, for the assessment of stages of fibrosis, stage 0 to stage 4. The fibrosis index, FibroScore, consisted of bilirubin, Gamma glutamyl transferase, Hyaluronic acid, alpha 2 macroglobulin, and platelets evaluation.\n\nResults: A score of >= 0.5 predicted stages 2, 3 and 4, with a sensitivity of 82%, and specificity of 92%. A score >= 0.5 for stages 3 and 4 had a sensitivity of 85%, and specificity of 89%. At a score of > 0.80, for stages 3 and 4, the sensitivity was 70%, specificity was 97%, and PPV 87% (there was >=

85% possibility of presence of stage 3 or 4). A score of <= 0.20 predicted the absence of stages 2, 3, and 4 with a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 86%, and NPV of 96%. Scores from 0.00 to 0.10 almost certainly ruled out the presence of stages 2-4 (NPV=98%). The areas under the ROC curve were: 0.808 for stage 2; 0.938 for stage 3; and 0.959 for stage 4.\n\nConclusion: A combination of 5 markers is very useful in predicting various stages of liver fibrosis, and is helpful in the non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis

“The effect of inclination of a channel on separation of a binary mixture of viscous incompressible thermally and electrically conducting fluids in presence of a weak constant magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of flow is examined. The equations governing the motion, temperature distribution and concentration Nepicastat chemical structure distribution are solved analytically It has been found that the effects of pressure gradient and temperature gradient are to separate the components of the mixture. The inclination of channel has adverse effect on the rate of species separation while the intensity of the applied magnetic field enhanced the same.”
“Introduction: Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare but lethal form of mesenteric ischemia. Diagnosis before frank thrombosis and gangrene is a challenge. Documented experience in the East African region is scanty.

coelicolor cell walls Phenotypic analyses revealed that

coelicolor cell walls. Phenotypic analyses revealed that PP2 these enzymes are important throughout development; deletion of each hydrolase gene resulted in a mutant strain that was heat sensitive, defective in spore formation, and either altered in vegetative growth or delayed in spore germination. Our results indicate that these enzymes play key roles at multiple stages in the growth and

development of S. coelicolor, highlighting both the lack of redundancy in hydrolase activity and the importance of cell wall remodeling in the S. coelicolor life cycle.”
“Due to the overexpression of a folate receptor (FR) on many malignant cells, folate-targeted drugs have been developed to improve the cancer specificity of chemotherapeutic agents. Therapeutic index is further enhanced with the use of self-immolative linkers that efficiently release the attached drug

upon cellular internalization of the folate-drug conjugate. Because FR is also abundant in normal kidney proximal tubule (PT) cells, we sought to examine in real time the trafficking and release of folate-targeted drugs in the kidney in vivo. Thus, we conducted two-photon kidney imaging studies in mice utilizing a Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) based folate conjugate that undergoes a color shift from red to green upon reduction of the disulfide bond linking folate to a surrogate drug molecule. Following infusion via intravenous injection, folate-FRET reached the kidney in its intact unreduced form. The folate-FRET conjugate was then filtered into the lumen of PT, where it was efficiently captured by FR. As FR transcytosed across

PT, some disulfide reduction occurred, with WH-4-023 reduced folate-FRET detectable in PT vesicles 30 min postinjection. Prolonged monitoring of folate-FRET in mice showed modest progression of reduction in PT cells over time. Moreover, inhibition of FR trafficking in PT cells by colchicine did not significantly affect the rate or extent of folate-FRET reduction. Finally, the lack of cytosolic accumulation of released drug surrogate in the PT suggests that drug release via disulfide bond reduction Selleckchem HSP990 should cause little kidney toxicity.”
“Objective: To investigate the sleep/wake, day/night, and 24-h periodicity of pediatric evolution to generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC).\n\nMethods: Charts of 407 consecutive patients aged 0-21 years undergoing continuous video-EEG monitoring for epilepsy were reviewed for the presence of GTC evolution. Seizures were characterized according to 2001 ILAE terminology. Charts were reviewed for EEG seizure localization, MRI lesion, and for seizure occurrence in 3-h time blocks, out of sleep or wakefulness, and during the day (6 AM-6 PM) or night. Analysis was done with binomial testing. Regression models were fitted using generalized estimating equations with patients as the cluster level variable.\n\nResults: 71 patients (32 girls, mean age 12.63 +/- 5.

Therefore, MGSNs are of great potential as a multifunctional nano

Therefore, MGSNs are of great potential as a multifunctional nanoplatform for MR-SERS bimodal imaging-guided, focused photothermal tumor

therapy. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Neurodegenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders of the nervous system that mostly lead to a progressive loss of neural cells. A major challenge in studying the molecular pathomechanisms underlying these disorders is the limited experimental access to disease-affected human nervous system tissue. In addition, considering that the molecular Sapanisertib datasheet disease initiation occurs years or decades before the symptomatic onset of a medical condition, these tissues mostly reflect only the final phase of the disease. To overcome these limitations, various model systems have been established based on gain- and loss-of-function studies in transformed cell

lines or transgenic animal models. Although these approaches provide valuable insights into disease mechanisms and development they often lack physiological protein expression levels selleck products and a humanized context of molecular interaction partners. The generation of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells from somatic cells provides access to virtually unlimited numbers of patient-specific cells for modeling neurological disorders in vitro. In this review, we focus on the current progress made in hiPS cell-based modeling of neurodegenerative diseases and discuss recent

advances in the quality assessment of hiPS cell lines.”
“Critical selleck kinase inhibitor tests were performed in 2011 in four weanling horses (L-1, L-2, L-29, and L-30) treated with ivermectin paste at 200 mu g/kg. They were born in 2011 and raised together on a farm (MC) in Central Kentucky. The horses had not been treated previously with an antiparasitic drug. However, ivermectin had been administered repeatedly to the horse herd for several years and strongyle eggs per gram of feces (EPGs) returned sooner posttreatment than after initial usage. Critical tests in a recent previous study in this horse herd indicated that the reason for the early return of strongyle EPGs after ivermectin treatment probably was because of lowered drug activity on immature (L-4) small strongyles in the lumen of the large intestine. Therefore, the life cycle was shortened. The main purpose of the present study was to obtain further data on the activity of ivermectin on small strongyle immature stages, in addition to adults, in the intestinal lumen. Twelve species of small strongyles were present. Combined data for immature and adult small strongyles for the four ivermectin-treated horses demonstrated efficacy of 68 to 83 %. Removal of adults was 100 % for all four horses, and on immatures, it ranged from 0 to 16 %. Efficacy on immature small strongyles was even lower than in the previous study.

“Purpose: The Beijing Eye Public Health Care Project was d

“Purpose: The Beijing Eye Public Health Care Project was designed to screen all elderly subjects (age 55-85 years) of the rural region of Greater Beijing. It was developed as a preparatory step for a telemedicine-based public PF-562271 health care system in ophthalmology in China.\n\nDesign: Population-based public health care project.\n\nParticipants: Elderly subjects (age 55-85 years) of the rural region of Greater Beijing.\n\nMethods: Project participants were visited, interviewed, and examined by 2500 high school graduates trained as ophthalmic technicians. If visual acuity was <0.30, subjects were referred to primary health care centers where ocular photographs were taken. Using telemedicine, the

photographs were transmitted to

a reading center and causes for visual impairment were diagnosed.\n\nMain Outcome Measures: Practicability of a mass CHIR98014 screening system in ophthalmology; prevalence of visual impairment and causes for it.\n\nResults: Out of 692 323 eligible inhabitants, 562 788 (81.3%) subjects participated. Visual impairment in >= 1 eye was detected in 54 155 (9.62%) subjects, and among them, 30 164 (5.36%) subjects had bilateral visual impairment. Ocular fundus photographs were taken for 37 281 subjects. Cause for visual impairment was cataract in 19 163 (3.41%) of all screened subjects, glaucoma in 1606 (0.29%) subjects, diabetic retinopathy in 905 (0.16%) subjects, other macular diseases in 2700 (0.48%) subjects, pterygium in 1381 (0.25%) subjects, and corneal leukoma in 283 (0.05%) subjects. For 5853 (1.04%) subjects, a diagnosis of premature or mature cataract was made showing the urgent need of cataract surgery. After cataract surgery, visual acuity was >0.30 in 1464 (91.7%) of 1596 postoperatively reexamined subjects.\n\nConclusions: Using a telemedicine approach, the Beijing Eye Public Health Care Project developed, applied and tested an infrastructure Dibutyryl-cAMP mw for ophthalmic mass screening of >500 000 elderly inhabitants with a response rate of >80%. Beside cataract, retinal diseases including diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma were major causes for visual impairment.\n\nFinancial Disclosure(s):

The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any of the materials discussed in this article. Ophthalmology 2012;119:1167-1174 (C) 2012 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.”
“Methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 by the Set1 subunit of COMPASS correlates with active transcription. Here, we show that Set1 levels are regulated by protein degradation in response to multiple signals. Set1 levels are greatly reduced when COMPASS recruitment to genes, H3K4 methylation, or transcription is blocked. The degradation sequences map to N-terminal regions that overlap a previously identified autoinhibitory domain, as well as the catalytic domain. Truncation mutants of Set1 that cause under- or overexpression produce abnormal H3K4 methylation patterns on transcribed genes.

Because the rate of crossover favoring SCS beyond 6 months would

Because the rate of crossover favoring SCS beyond 6 months would bias a long-term randomized group comparison, we present all outcomes Ferroptosis assay in patients who continued SCS from randomization to 24 months and, for illustrative purposes, the primary outcome (>50% leg pain relief) per randomization and final treatment.\n\nMETHODS:

Patients provided data on pain, quality of life, function, pain medication use, treatment satisfaction, and employment status. Investigators documented adverse events. Data analysis included inferential comparisons and multivariate regression analyses.\n\nRESULTS: The 42 patients continuing SCS (of 52 randomized to SCS) reported significantly improved leg pain relief (P < 0.0001), quality of life (P <= 0.01), and functional capacity (P = 0.0002); and 13 patients (31%) required a device-related surgical revision. At 24 months, of 46 of 52 patients randomized to SCS and 41 of 48 randomized to CMM who were available, the primary outcome was achieved by 17 (37%)

randomized to SCS versus 1 (2%) to CMM Stem Cell Compound Library in vitro (P = 0.003) and by 34 (47%) of 72 patients who received SCS as final treatment versus 1 (7%) of 15 for CMM (P = 0.02).\n\nCONCLUSION: At 24 months of SCS treatment, selected failed back surgery syndrome patients reported sustained pain relief, clinically important improvements in functional capacity and health-related quality of life, and satisfaction with treatment.”
“In seasonal breeding species, the gene encoding for the melatonin MT(1) receptor (oMT(1)) is highly polymorphic and numerous data have reported the existence of an association between an allele of the receptor and a marked expression of the seasonality

SC79 of reproduction in ewes. This allele called “m” (previously named “-” allele) carries a mutation leading to the absence of a MnlI restriction site as opposed to the “M” allele (previously named “+” allele) carrying the MnlI restriction site (previously “+” allele). This allows the determination of the three genotypes “M/M” (+/+),”M/m” (+/-) and “m/m” (-/-). This mutation is conservative and could therefore not be causal. However, it is associated with another mutation introducing the change of a valine to an isoleucine in the fifth transmembrane domain of the receptor. Homozygous “M/M” and “m/m” animals consequently express structurally different receptors respectively named oMT(1) Val(220) and oMT(1) Ile(220). The objective of this study was to test whether these polymorphic variants are functionally different. To achieve this goal, we characterized the binding properties and the transduction pathways associated with both variants of the receptors. Using a pharmacological approach, no variation in binding parameters between the two receptors when transiently expressed in COS-7.

The titers of auto (Abs) to TNF-alpha, interferon-alpha (IFN-alph

The titers of auto (Abs) to TNF-alpha, interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and chemokines CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Neutralizing activities of high-titer auto Abs to TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha were determined using functional in vitro assays.\n\nResults: Highly significant increased titers of auto

Abs to TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha were detected in patients with psoriasis compared with healthy subjects and patients with AD (mean titers more than fourfold). These auto Abs demonstrated some neutralizing activity in vitro, but their serum levels did not correlate with the intensity and duration of the disease and with phototherapy induced remissions. Significantly increased titers albeit to a lesser extent, of auto Abs to CCL3 were detected in AD.\n\nConclusions: Psoriasis patients produce markedly

increased levels of auto Abs to TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha which are two of the key cytokines in MI-503 manufacturer this disorder. The presence of these auto Abs which possess some neutralizing activity in vitro, may be an epiphenomenon or might play a role in attempting to suppress the ongoing inflammatory process. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society for investigative Dermatology.”
“We report the case of a 55 year old female patient who presented to our clinic in 2008 and 2009 with ischemic S3I-201 stroke in left ventral medulla oblongata and right thalamus. Thorough medical testing revealed no etiology of the strokes in the so far healthy woman. CSF diagnosis elicited active Neuroborreliosis in the patient. After antibiotic treatment stroke did not recur so far.”
“Recent developments and therapeutic use of selective BRAF inhibitors (e.g. dabrafenib and vemurafenib) buy A-1210477 have significantly improved overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with BRAF V600 mutation-positive metastatic melanoma. Despite their survival benefits, small-molecule inhibitors of BRAF

are associated with significant and sometimes severe treatment-related dermatological toxicity. The most common adverse skin reactions include photosensitivity, induced malignant lesions of the skin such as keratoacanthomas, squamous cell carcinoma and new primary melanomas, as well as keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation dysfunctions that can manifest as skin papillomas, hand-foot skin reaction, keratosis pilaris-like rash, acantholytic dyskeratosis and cysts of the milia type. In this article, we describe the clinical and histological features of the cutaneous manifestations induced by vemurafenib and dabrafenib on the basis of our clinical experience and a literature review. The crucial role of dermatologists in patient management is also highlighted. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The quality of life in patients with chronic low-back pain is lower in comparison with that in general population.

However, such targeting of the nanocarrier is not effective if th

However, such targeting of the nanocarrier is not effective if the encapsulated drug within the liposome is not released at the intended site. Drug release can be influenced by both the membrane composition of the liposome and the choice of drug. In addition to environmental triggers, such as low pH and the presence of particular enzymes, external stimuli such as heat or ultrasound have gained attention in the BAY 73-4506 manufacturer clinic. This review provides a summary of the various approaches to modifying drug release from liposomes.”
“Microbial production of higher alcohols from renewable feedstock has attracted intensive attention thanks to its potential as a source for next-generation

gasoline substitutes. Here we report the discovery, characterization and engineering of an endogenous 1-butanol pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Upon introduction of a single gene deletion adh1 Delta, S. cerevisiae was able to accumulate more than 120 mg/L 1-butanol from glucose in rich medium. Precursor feeding, C-13-isotope labeling and gene deletion experiments

demonstrated that the endogenous 1-butanol production was dependent on catabolism of threonine in a manner similar to fusel alcohol production FK228 mw by the Ehrlich pathway. Specifically, the leucine biosynthesis pathway was engaged in the conversion of key 2-keto acid intermediates. Overexpression of the pathway enzymes and elimination of competing pathways achieved the highest reported 1-butanol titer in S. cerevisiae (242.8 mg/L). (C) 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved”
“In this study, hemoglobin vesicle (HbV), a type

of artificial oxygen carrier, was infused in a hemorrhagic shock model, and the findings were compared with those of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion to evaluate the effects on blood pressure and renal function. In rats maintained in hemorrhagic shock for 30 min under general anesthesia, either irradiated stored RBCs from the same strain or HbVs were used for resuscitation. Blood pressure, serum creatinine concentration, and creatinine clearance 24 h after shock were measured. At 2 and 24 h after shock, the kidneys were removed, and the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA level was measured. A histopathology study was performed 24 h after shock. In both the RBC and HbV group, blood pressure recovered significantly immediately after fluid resuscitation, and blood pressure 24 h after shock did not differ significantly between the two groups. Serum creatinine concentration and creatinine clearance 24 h after shock did not differ significantly between the two groups. After 24 h, there was no significant difference in HO-1 mRNA between the groups.

Data were analyzed for differences between both subgroups regardi

Data were analyzed for differences between both subgroups regarding surgical outcome and adnexal pathologies as reported in the postoperative follow-up. Surgical outcomes of 540 patients (PBS: 127; non-PBS: 413) revealed no difference between

groups. No preneoplastic or malignant lesions were diagnosed in the fallopian tubes. Follow-up (non-PBS 92 months, PBS 55 months; p smaller than 0.01) responses from 295 (54.6 %) patients showed a INCB024360 higher incidence of benign adnexal pathologies in the non-PBS group (26.9 vs. 13.9 %; p = 0.02). The rate of LAVH-related surgical re-intervention was higher in the non-PBS group (12.56 vs. 4.16 %; p = 0.04). No malignant neoplasm was reported in the cohort. PBS did not increase the complication SBE-β-CD clinical trial rate and reduced the incidence of adnexal pathologies requiring surgical re-intervention. Prospective trials should clarify the impact of PBS on cancer mortality.”
“We have investigated the Ash Shutbah circular structure in central Saudi Arabia (21 degrees 37N 45 degrees 39E) using satellite imagery, field mapping, thin-section petrography, and X-ray diffraction of collected samples. The approximately 2.1km sized structure located in flat-lying Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone has been nearly peneplained by erosional processes. Satellite and structural data show a central area consisting

of Dhruma Formation sandstones with steep bedding and tight folds plunging radially outward. Open folding occurs in displaced, younger Tuwaiq Mountain check details Limestone Formation blocks surrounding the central area, but is absent outside the circular structure. An approximately 60cm thick, unique folded and disrupted orthoquartzitic sandstone marker

bed occurring in the central area of the structure is found 140m deeper in undisturbed escarpment outcrops located a few hundred meters west of the structure. With exception of a possible concave shatter cone found in the orthoquartzite of the central area, other diagnostic shock features are lacking. Some quartz-rich sandstones from the central area show pervasive fracturing of quartz grains with common concussion fractures. This deformation was followed by an event of quartz dissolution and calcite precipitation consistent with local sea- or groundwater heating. The combination of central stratigraphic uplift of 140m, concussion features in discolored sandstone, outward-dipping concentric folds in the central area, deformation restricted to the rocks of the ring structure, a complex circular structure of 2.1km diameter that appears broadly consistent with what one would expect from an impact structure in sedimentary targets, and a possible shatter cone all point to an impact origin of the Ash Shutbah structure.