“The impact of diffuse pollution in aquatic systems is of

“The impact of diffuse pollution in aquatic systems is of great concern due to the difficult to measure and regulate it. As part of an ecological risk assessment (ERA), this study aims to use a whole sample toxicity assessment to evaluate the toxicity of water and sediment from Lake Vela,

a lake that has been exposed to diffuse pollution. In this way, standard (algae: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata; cladoceran: Daphnia magna) and local species (algae: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; cladoceran: www.selleckchem.com/products/tubastatin-a.html Daphnia longispina) were exposed to surface water, and sediment elutriates were collected seasonally from two sites at Lake Vela: one near the east bank (ES), surrounded by agricultural lands; and the other near the west bank (WS), surrounded by a forest. The results confirmed the seasonal contamination of both environmental compartments

by pesticides, including organochlorine pesticides, and the presence of high concentrations of nutrients. Although both sites were contaminated, higher levels of pesticides and nutrients were detected in ES, particularly in the sediments. Bioassays showed that water samples (100% concentration) collected in summer and autumn significantly affected the growth rate of P. subcapitata, which could be attributed to the presence of pesticides. Likewise, they revealed an apparent toxicity of elutriates for P subcapitata and for both daphnids, in summer and autumn. In fact, although pesticides were not detected in elutriates, high levels of un-ionized ammonia were recorded, which LY2835219 inhibitor is considered highly toxic

to aquatic life. By comparing the several species, P. subcapitata was revealed to be the most sensitive one, followed by the daphnids, and then by A. flos-aquae. Results obtained in this study underlined the importance of whole samples toxicity assessment for characterizing the ecological effects of complex mixtures from diffuse inputs, in the ERA processes. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals. Inc. Environ Toxicol 24: 259-270, 2009.”
“Background: The application of statistics in reported research in trauma and orthopaedic surgery has become ever more important and complex. Despite the extensive use of statistical analysis, it is still a subject which is often not Selleckchem Napabucasin conceptually well understood, resulting in clear methodological flaws and inadequate reporting in many papers.

Methods: A detailed statistical survey sampled 100 representative orthopaedic papers using a validated questionnaire that assessed the quality of the trial design and statistical analysis methods.

Results: The survey found evidence of failings in study design, statistical methodology and presentation of the results. Overall, in 17% (95% confidence interval; 10-26%) of the studies investigated the conclusions were not clearly justified by the results, in 39% (30-49%) of studies a different analysis should have been undertaken and in 17% (10-26%) a different analysis could have made a difference to the overall conclusions.

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