The association of several risk factors (such as advanced materna

The association of several risk factors (such as advanced maternal

age, pre-existing chronic hypertension, pre-existing nephropathy, obesity, suboptimal glycaemic control) increases the risk of preeclampsia. In that case, the classic follow-up (blood pressure measurement, proteinuria) should SBI-0206965 nmr be more frequent than monthly (professional consensus). The risk of Caesarean section is increased by macrosomia, whether suspected prenatally or not, but this increased risk remains whatever the birth weight (EL3). Diagnosis and treatment of GDM do not reduce the risk of severe perineal lesions, operative vaginal delivery and postpartum haemorrhage (EL2). Some psychological symptoms, such as anxiety and alteration of self-perception, can

occur upon diagnosis of GDM (EL3). The treatment of GDM appears to reduce the risk of postpartum depression symptoms (EL2).\n\nConclusion: Most of the information published on GDM covers the risks of preeclampsia and Caesarean section; intensive care of GDM reduces these risks. Pregnancy care should be adjusted to the risk factors. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“The cyclic (c) AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) plays a key role in many cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and signal transduction. Furthermore, CREB overexpression was found in tumors of distinct origin and evidence suggests an association with tumorigenicity. To establish a mechanistic selleck chemical link between HER-2/neu-mediated transformation and CREB protein expression and function, in vitro models of HER-2/neu-overexpressing and HER-2/neu-negative/silenced Selleck Citarinostat counterparts as well as human mammary carcinoma lesions with defined HER-2/neu status were used. HER-2/neu overexpression resulted in the induction and activation of CREB protein in vitro and in vivo, whereas short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated inhibition of HER-2/neu correlated with downregulated CREB activity. CREB activation in HER-2/neu-transformed cells enhanced

distinct signal transduction pathways, whereas their inhibition negatively interfered with CREB expression and/or activation. CREB downregulation in HER-2/neu-transformed cells by shRNA and by the inhibitors KG-501 and lapatinib caused morphologic changes, reduced cell proliferation with G(0)-G(1) cell-cycle arrest, which was rescued by CREB expression. This was accompanied by reduced cell migration, wound healing, an increased fibronectin adherence, invasion, and matrixmetallo proteinase expression. In vivo shCREB-HER-2/neu(+) cells, but not control cells, exerted a significantly decreased tumorgenicity that was associated with decreased proliferative capacity, enhanced apoptosis, and increased frequency of Tlymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Thus, CREB plays an important role in the HER-2/neu-mediated transformation by altering in vitro and in vivo growth characteristics.”

Comments are closed.