For x =20.9 and 29.5, the stress T dependencies of the saturation

For x =20.9 and 29.5, the stress T dependencies of the saturation magnetostrictions were found to be 0.136 X 10(-6)T MPa-1 and 0.281 X 10(-6)T MPa-1, respectively. Values of the third order elastic constants, c(3)’s, calculated from these values agree both in sign and magnitude with those obtained from stress dependent measurements of Young’s moduli and Poisson’s ratios. In sum, we conclude that the Fe100-xGax magnetostriction for this website 0<x<30 can be attributed to a simple homogenous single domain magnetoelastic mechanism. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3058685]“
“Metastatic breast cancer is currently incurable and the goals of therapy focus on prolonging survival and

maintaining quality of life by controlling symptoms and minimizing toxicity. Treatments for metastatic breast cancer include chemotherapeutic agents from various classes, such as taxanes, vinca alkaloids, anthracyclines and antimetabolites. This review Selleckchem YM155 provides an overview

of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer patients previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes, focusing on a clinical evaluation of eribulin, the most recently approved agent for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Eribulin is a synthetic derivative of halichondrin B, a tumour growth inhibitor found in marine sponges, which prevents microtubule growth and sequesters the tubulin molecules into unusual aggregates, initiating apoptosis. Studies of eribulin have shown that the drug is effective in the treatment of previously treated metastatic breast cancer, and has an acceptable toxicity profile. Importantly, EPZ5676 manufacturer in the phase III EMBRACE study, eribulin treatment resulted in a survival advantage, a difficult endpoint to achieve

with a single chemotherapeutic agent. An additional phase III study showed that eribulin has similar efficacy to capecitabine in women treated with no more than three prior therapies. Furthermore, pre-specified exploratory analyses suggest that particular patient subgroups may have greater therapeutic benefit with eribulin and may warrant further study to explore the potential mechanisms.”
“Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of social support and coping strategies in enhancing post-traumatic growth (PTG) in cancer patients. The study focused on both avoidance and approaching coping and on four distinct types of social support: (a) perceived availability, (b) actual received, (c) satisfaction with received support, and (d) the competence of caregiver to satisfy the patient’s basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness.

Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted with a group of 41 cancer patients currently in the treatment and management phase of their illness. Data were collected by means of a written questionnaire, at two time points (T1 and T2) that were 6 months apart.

Results: PVP, silver, and PVP-silver coatings reduced P. aerugino

Results: PVP, silver, and PVP-silver coatings reduced P. aeruginosa biofilm formation relative to silicone by over 1 log (p < 0.0001). PVP was superior to silver (p = 0.04) and PVP-silver (p < 0.0001). PVP and PVP-silver coatings increased selleck chemical S. aureus biofilm formation nominally (p = 0.01 & 0.003).

Conclusion: PVP and silver coatings reduce P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on silicone Us. Combining PVP and silver coatings does not further improve biofilm resistance. TT surface

coatings warrant further study through clinical trials. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Ethylhexyl triazone (EHT) is a sunscreen agent widely used in the formulation of skin care products, whose physicochemical properties have not been thoroughly Elafibranor Metabolism inhibitor studied. In this work the Extended Hildebrand Solubility Approach (EHSA) was applied to evaluate the solubility of EHT in ethyl acetate + ethanol mixtures at 298.15 K. A good correlative capacity of EHSA was found using a regular polynomial model in order five (overall deviation lower than 1.2 %), when the W interaction parameter is related to the solubility parameter of the mixtures. Besides, the deviations obtained in the estimated solubility

with respect to experimental solubility were lower compared with those obtained directly by means of an empiric regression of the experimental solubility as a function of the mixtures’ solubility parameters.”
“Objective: Radiological and genetic examination has recently advanced for diagnosis of congenital hearing loss. The

aim of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of inner-ear and/or internal auditory canal malformations in children with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USNHL) for better management of hearing loss and genetic and lifestyle counseling.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of charts and temporal bone computed SRT2104 chemical structure tomography (CT) findings of 69 consecutive patients 0-15 years old with USNHL. In two cases, genetic examination was conducted.

Results: Of these patients, 66.7% had inner-ear and/or internal auditory canal malformations. The prevalence of malformations in infants (age <1 year) was 84.6%, which was significantly higher than that in children 1 similar to 15 years old (55.8%; p < 0.01). Almost half of the patients (32; 46.4%) had cochlear nerve canal stenosis; 13 of them had cochlear nerve canal stenosis alone, and in 19 it accompanied other malformations. Internal auditory canal malformations were observed in 22 subjects (31.8%), 14 (20.3%) had cochlear malformations, and 5 (7.2%) had vestibular/semicircular canal malformations. These anomalies were seen only in the affected ear, except in two of five patients with vestibular and/or semicircular canal malformations. Two patients (2.9%) had bilateral enlarged vestibular aqueducts. Mutations were found in SLC26A4 in one of the two patients with bilateral large vestibular aqueducts.

Because the antibiotics treatment for VO should continue for 6-8

Because the antibiotics treatment for VO should continue for 6-8 weeks, hospital stay was significantly

longer for patients with VO (75.8 +/- A 41.0 days) compared to patients without VO (42.6 +/- A 30.4 days; check details P = 0.0035). Although 6 hospital deaths (15.8%) occurred among the patients without VO, there were no hospital deaths among patients with VO. The 30- and 80-month survival was not significantly different between the patients with VO and without VO (30-month: 88.9% vs 81.7%, 80-month: 88.9% vs 74.3%, respectively). When specifically sought, the incidence of VO is high in patients with IE. VO does not appear to worsen the prognosis of IE, although the need for long hospital stays seems to be more frequent.”
“Background: The first aim of this study was to compare the subjective experiences of social, cognitive, and emotional problems of the patient and his/her next of kin, and explore if this related to cognitive testing. The second aim was to explore how these results reflect the patient’s awareness. Methods: This is a subanalysis from a longitudinal study in the first year

after discharge with comparisons of patient and next of kin scores on the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ) and analyses of the relationship of their scores to an objective cognitive screening on 3 occasions. A paired t test was used AR-13324 in vivo to explore differences between 35 stroke patients and their next of kin on the EBIQ. Gamma analyses were made to explore the relationship between the EBIQ scores and the Barrow Neurological Institute Screening (BNIS) of higher cognitive functions, with the entire sample grouped into aware and unaware according to the BNIS item of awareness. Results: We found significant differences between the patient and next of kin assessments on all occasions, apart from at discharge.

When grouped, only the group of aware patients differed significantly from their next of kin. Significant relations of the patient ratings on the EBIQ and BNIS were only found at the 1-year this website follow-up for the unaware group and the entire sample. Next of kin EBIQ scores did not correlate with the BNIS. Conclusions: Neither next of kin ratings nor an objective measurement was feasible to use for evaluation of the patient’s awareness of social, cognitive, and emotional problems.”
“Study design: Prospective cohort.

Objectives: To characterize spinal cord injury (SCI)-related pain and treatment in victims of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.

Setting: Mianzhu County, China.

Methods: Twenty-six patients who sustained SCI in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake and who were treated in the same hospital were enrolled. Data was collected on pain severity with a visual analog scale, depression with Patient Health Questionnaire-9, quality of life (QoL) with World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF and social participation with the Craig Hospital Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique Short Form at three assessment points.

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3656687]“

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3656687]“
“Many different surgical procedures have been employed in the treatment of fracture dislocation at the middle to lower cervical spine. However, consistent protocols and procedures have not been fully established for the surgical correction of an irreducible old cervical fracture dislocation associated with spinal deformity.

We report a case of irreducible cervical fracture dislocation and kyphoscoliosis, in which surgical

simulation using a three-dimensional full-scale model was useful for circumferential corrective osteotomy at the C6-C7 level. 3 Methyladenine A 56-year-old man was diagnosed with an irreducible fracture dislocation at the C6-C7 level

2 months after a motor vehicle accident. He showed torticollis, and complained of severe pain in his neck and left upper arm. Radiographic examinations revealed that the C6 vertebra was translated anteriorly and laterally to the C7 vertebra. A bony union had progressed at the fracture site, showing rigid cervico-thoracic kyphoscoliosis. To assist in the preoperative planning, we created a three-dimensional, full-scale model from the patient’s computed tomography data. Using the model, we performed a simulation of the planned circumferential corrective osteotomy at the C6-C7 level.

Through the simulation, we could evaluate the deformed bony structures around the vertebral arteries at the C6-C7 level accurately. At the time of the actual surgery, corrective osteotomy combined with spinal fusion (C5-T2) with STA-9090 cell line a pedicle screw-rod system was accomplished successfully without any neurovascular complications. After surgery, the patient experienced

relief from pain, and his neck posture became normal.

Surgical simulation using a three-dimensional, full-scale model was useful for improving the accuracy and safety of circumferential corrective osteotomy Liproxstatin-1 of the cervical spine.”
“Unilateral and bilateral hand transplantations have been performed worldwide with good mid-term functional results. An above-elbow bilateral transplantation was performed in a 29-year-old male patient from a fully HLA-mismatched donor. Alemtuzumab induction and steroid-free maintenance immunosuppression with tacrolimus and mycophenolate was used. Due to acute rejection, steroids were introduced at 6 months. Three acute rejection episodes occurred, one treated with alemtuzumab. New-onset diabetes after transplant, dyslipemia and worsening of previous high blood pressure required treatment. At 26 months post-transplantation, the patient has excellent elbow active movement, active flexion and extension of the thumb and fingers, useful sensation and a gainful job. Based on the functional results of the case reported, bilateral trans-humeral transplantation could be a viable treatment for selected bilateral above-elbow amputees.

Hepatoprotective effect of combination of 6, 7 and silymarin with

Hepatoprotective effect of combination of 6, 7 and silymarin with the diterpene sugiol was also explored.”
“The bystander effect, whose essence is an interaction of cells directly subjected to radiation with adjacent non-subjected cells, via molecular signals, is an important component of ionizing radiation action. However, knowledge of the bystander effect in the case of ultraviolet (UV) radiation is quite limited. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by UV in exposed cells induce bystander effects in non-exposed

cells, such as reduction in clonogenic cell survival and delayed cell death, oxidative DNA damage and gene mutations, induction of micronuclei, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis. Although the bystander effect after UV radiation has been recognized in cell culture systems, its occurrence in vivo has not been studied. However, solar UV radiation, which is the main source of ACY-738 supplier UV in the environment, may induce in human dermal tissue an inflammatory response and immune suppression, events which can be considered as bystander effects of UV radiation. The oxidative damage to DNA, genomic instability

and the inflammatory response may lead to carcinogenesis. UV radiation is considered one of the important etiologic factors for skin cancers, basal- and Selleck MK-8931 squamous-cell carcinomas and malignant melanoma. Based on the mechanisms of actions it seems that the UV-induced bystander effect can have some impact on skin damage (carcinogenesis?), and probably on cells of other tissues. The paper reviews the existing data about the UV-induced bystander KPT-8602 research buy effect and discusses a possible implication of this phenomenon for health risk.”
“We report a 9-month-old male patient with autoimmune enteropathy treated with intravenous methylprednisolone who developed firm, red, subcutaneous nodules 20 days after abrupt steroid interruption. The diagnosis of poststeroid panniculitis (PSP) was made based on clinical and histological grounds. PSP is an unusual complication of systemic corticosteroid therapy, which might occur following rapid steroid tapering or withdrawal. Physicians

should be aware of this rare condition and distinguish it from other causes of erythematous subcutaneous nodules and plaques in children.”
“This study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of two ethnobotanically important plant species Carissa opaca and Toona ciliata against cancer cells. Antiproliferative activity of the plant extracts and their fractions was tested against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line using MTT assay. A concentration dependent inhibition was observed for both crude extracts. C. opaca crude extract showed 78.5% inhibition while T ciliata showed 57% activity against cancer cells at 500 mu g/ml. Fractions were tested at 200 mu g/ml concentration and were more active than crude extracts. Chloroform fraction of C. opaca showed maximum inhibition 99% followed by ethyl acetate and methanol fraction of C.

It has important implications

It has important implications Selleckchem IPI 145 for atmospheric chemistry, climate regulation, and sulphur transport from the marine to the atmospheric and terrestrial environments. In addition, DMS acts as an info-chemical for a wide range of organisms ranging from micro-organisms to mammals. Micro-organisms that cycle DMS are widely distributed in a range of environments,

for instance, oxic and anoxic marine, freshwater and terrestrial habitats. Despite the importance of DMS that has been unearthed by many studies since the early 1970s, the understanding of the biochemistry, genetics, and ecology of DMS-degrading micro-organisms is still limited. This review examines current knowledge on the microbial cycling of DMS and points out areas for future research that should shed more light on the role of organisms degrading DMS and related Ro-3306 cost compounds in the biosphere.”
“The sugarcane weevil, Sphenophorus levis, is a widespread sugarcane pest in Brazil. Sphenophorus levis may depend on microorganisms that inhabit its intestinal tract. We examined the diversity of the gut

microbiota of S. levis, which was characterized using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Analysis of 16S rRNA amplified directly from the gut community revealed the presence of 14 genera, one group from the Candidatus category, one uncultured group assigned to the family Flavobacteriaceae, and one uncultured group assigned to the family Enterobacteriaceae; all of them are members of the Alpha-Proteobacteria,

Beta-Proteobacteria, Gamma-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes phyla. Microorganisms isolated through culture-dependent methods were classified according to morphological parameters and by 16S rRNA gene sequences. In addition to bacteria, four filamentous fungi were isolated. A higher bacterial diversity was observed in field populations of larvae than in laboratory populations, according to the Shannon Thiazovivin index (Field H’ = 3.36; Laboratory H’ = 3.26). Five genera of bacteria and two filamentous fungi were found to have cellulolytic activity. This is the first report of S. levis gut microbiota; it may contribute to development of strategies for controlling this sugarcane pest.”
“The response of graphitelike BC3 phases (t-BC3) to shock-wave loading has been studied using two types of high explosives, in order to investigate the possible routes to synthesize via dynamic compression superhard materials in the form of high-pressure phases such as the B-doped diamond produced recently under high static pressures and temperatures. The loading conditions resulting from wave propagation in the shock recovery setup have been determined from theoretical predictions confirmed by numerical simulations and velocity measurements.


(5-hmC) is a newly described epig


(5-hmC) is a newly described epigenetic modification. It is generated by the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) by the ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of enzymes. Various studies have shown that 5-hmC is present in high levels in the brain. Its lower affinity to methyl-binding proteins as compared to 5-mC suggests that it might have a different role in the regulation of gene expression, while it is also implicated in the DNA demethylation process. Interestingly, various widely used methods for DNA methylation detection fail to discriminate between 5-hmC and 5-mC, while numerous specific techniques are currently being developed. Recent studies have indicated an increase of 5-hmC with age in the mouse brain as well as an age- and gene-expression-level-related enrichment of 5-hmC in genes implicated in neurodegeneration. These findings suggest that 5-hmC LBH589 mouse may play an important role in the etiology and course of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. The present perspective summarizes the current knowledge on 5-hmC, discusses methodological challenges related to its detection, and suggests future strategies for examining INCB024360 chemical structure the functional role of this epigenetic modification and its

possible implication in aging and Alzheimer’s disease.”
“Advances in the past few years have helped clinicians understand some of the pathogenetic mechanisms of Graves orbitopathy (GO), particularly the role of receptors for TSH and insulin-like growth factor I in the orbit. Optimal treatment strategies have been formulated and published by the European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy, which are hoped to improve the management of patients with this condition. The administration of intravenous pulses of steroids has been established as a superior treatment approach compared with other steroid regimens. in addition, orbital radiotherapy was effective in a subgroup of patients with GO who had eye dysmotility. The use of immunotherapies

for the treatment of GO is currently being explored; of these, rituximab has emerged as a promising new agent.”
“Several strategies have been devised to manage in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL) subluxation. We describe ABT263 a method of fixating the IOL-capsular bag complex to the sclera using the fibrotic ring that develops around the continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC). Two, preferably 3, double-armed 10-0-polypropylene sutures are passed around the fibrotic CCC rim of the capsule and out the Hoffman scleral pockets and then tied in the scleral tunnels to center the IOL-bag complex. This technique provides an alternative approach to repositioning and fixating the IOL-bag complex that is especially useful in cases in which removal and replacement of the IOL would be difficult. It also provides more than 2-point fixation to achieve perfect IOL centration.”
“Plasmodium vivax is a major cause of febrile illness in endemic areas of Asia, Central and South America, and the horn of Africa.


2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 50


2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 501-508, 2011″
“P>Transport of dicarboxylates across the chloroplast envelope plays an important role in transferring carbon skeletons to the nitrogen assimilation pathway and exporting reducing equivalent to the cytosol to prevent GANT61 manufacturer photo-inhibition (the malate valve). It was previously shown that the Arabidopsis plastidic 2-oxoglutarate/malate transporter (AtpOMT1) and the general dicarboxylate transporter (AtpDCT1) play crucial roles at the interface between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. However, based on the in vitro transport properties of the recombinant transporters, it was hypothesized that AtpOMT1 might play a dual role, also functioning as an oxaloacetate/malate transporter, which is a crucial

but currently unidentified component of the chloroplast malate valve. Here, we test this hypothesis using Arabidopsis T-DNA BMS-345541 cell line insertional mutants of AtpOMT1. Transport studies revealed a dramatically reduced rate of oxaloacetate uptake into chloroplasts isolated from the knockout plant. CO(2)-dependent O(2) evolution assays showed that cytosolic oxaloacetate is efficiently transported into chloroplasts mainly by AtpOMT1, and supported the absence of additional oxaloacetate transporters. These findings strongly indicate that the high-affinity oxaloacetate transporter in Arabidopsis chloroplasts is AtpOMT1. Further, the knockout plants showed

enhanced photo-inhibition under high light due to greater accumulation of reducing equivalents in the stroma, indicating malfunction of the malate valve in the knockout plants. The knockout mutant showed a phenotype consistent with reductions in 2-oxoglutarate transport, glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase activity, subsequent amino acid biosynthesis and photorespiration. Our results demonstrate that AtpOMT1 acts bi-functionally as an oxaloacetate/malate transporter in the malate valve and as a 2-oxoglutarate/malate transporter mediating carbon/nitrogen metabolism.”
“Background: Studies of sodium have shown improvements selleck inhibitor in vascular function and blood pressure (BP). The effect of chronic sodium loading from a low-sodium diet to a Western diet on vascular function and BP has been less well studied.

Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of dietary salt intake on vascular function and BP.

Design: Thirty-five hypertensive volunteers met the inclusion criteria. After a 2-wk run-in with a low-sodium diet (60 mmol/d), the participants maintained their diets and were randomly assigned to receive sequentially 1 of 3 interventions for 4 wk, with a 2-wk washout between interventions: sodium-free tomato juice (A), tomato juice containing 90 mmol Na (B), and tomato juice containing 140 mmol Na (C).

In 25 procedures, image quality was sufficient for an inspection

In 25 procedures, image quality was sufficient for an inspection of the adjacent subarachnoid space. In six cases, the surgeon detected further adhesions that obstructed CSF flow in the adjacent subarachnoid space not visualized with the microscope. In all cases, these adhesions were identified and removed during microsurgery. Postoperative MRI scans demonstrated free CSF flow in all patients and a decrease in syrinx size in six patients.

Conclusion. Arachnoscopy is a helpful adjunct to microsurgery and can be performed safely and easily. It allows the

surgeon to detect further adhesions in the subarachnoid space, which would BX-795 cell line remain undetected by microscopy alone.”
“. The pharmacokinetics and in dosing regimens of the currently

available pegylated interferon (peginterferon) alfa molecules differ greatly, depending on the size and nature of their polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety. Peginterferon alfa-2a has a branched 40 kDa PEG chain covalently attached to lysine residues and circulates as an intact molecule. On the other hand, peginterferon alfa-2b has a linear 12 kDa PEG chain covalently attached to interferon-a-2b via an unstable urethane bond that is hydrolysed after injection, releasing native interferon alfa-2b. The difference in pegylation between the two peginterferons has a significant impact on their pharmacokinetic properties. Data from comparative and non-comparative studies indicate that peginterferon alfa-2b has a shorter half-life in serum than peginterferon alfa-2a, and a significant proportion of MX69 in vitro patients receiving peginterferon alfa-2b may have trough concentrations LY3023414 cost below the limit of detection during the latter part of the 7-day dosing schedule. However, the pharmacodynamic parameters of the two drugs appear to be similar.”
“Cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)spp.,

infestations are a major veterinary problem that impacts cattle production worldwide. Recently, vaccination has emerged as an alternative to control tick infestations that has shown the advantage of being cost-effective, avoids environmental contamination and prevents selection of drug-resistant ticks resulting from repeated acaricides applications. However, the success of vaccination is highly dependent on the availability of effective vaccines at affordable prices. Recombinant DNA technology has provided the mean for producing antigens in large quantities making possible the development and commercialization of anti-tick vaccines. In the early 1990s, a technology was developed to produce a commercial anti-tick vaccine based on the recombinant BM86 (rBM86) antigen isolated from R. (Boophilus) microplus and intracellularly expressed in Pichia pastoris. However, the technological process for its production was expensive. Herein we conducted an economical analysis of this technology in comparison with other reported processes.

Symptomatic hand OA may cause functional impairment due to loss o

Symptomatic hand OA may cause functional impairment due to loss of strength, thus limiting the individual’s ability to perform daily tasks.

Conclusions: Several risk factors for hand OA have been identified; however, their

interrelationship is not clearly understood. The development of preventive strategies and future research goals is needed. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Semin Arthritis Rheum 39:465-476″
“Objectives: Sleep disturbances frequently accompany chronic pain from osteoarthritis (OA), and their effective management may reflect successful treatment of chronic pain. The objective of this article is to provide a rationale for using improvement Ricolinostat in sleep as a marker for effective management of chronic OA pain with opioid analgesics. For this purpose, available evidence evaluating the relationship between successful management of chronic pain with opioids and improvements in sleep in patients with OA is reviewed.

Methods: We conducted find more a comprehensive

PubMed search to identify studies that systematically measured the impact of opioid treatment on pain and sleep parameters in the context of chronic pain from OA. Our search criteria included publication in a recognized peer-reviewed journal, randomized placebo-controlled design, and assessment of both pain intensity and sleep as outcomes.

Results: In each of the 10 placebo-controlled studies identified, concurrent improvements in pain intensity and measured sleep disturbances were observed in patients receiving the long-acting opioid analgesics under study. Improved overall sleep quality, reduced awakenings from pain, and increased duration of sleep were among the favorable changes observed in patients with OA treated with long-acting opioids.

Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that various long-acting opioid analgesics simultaneously achieve pain control and improve sleep. However, the complex interaction between

LY2157299 TGF-beta/Smad inhibitor reduced pain and improved sleep requires further study. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Semin Arthritis Rheum 39:477-490″
“Objectives: To review current developments, regarding the pathophysiologic role of monocytes and macrophages in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Methods: We searched Medline for articles written in the English language using the following terms: monocyte(s) or macrophage(s) and lupus. Although our search spanned the years 1971 to 2008, the majority of the short-listed articles belonged to the period 2000 to 2008. Published literature on phenotypic and functional properties of monocytes/macrophages (Mo/M phi) in SLE was reviewed. References from identified articles were also selected. Currently available experimental data and their relevance to the pathogenesis of SLE are critically discussed.