Interestingly, the dramatic effect of atorvastatin was only parti

Interestingly, the dramatic effect of atorvastatin was only partially mimicked by other statins including pravastatin, fluvastatin, mevastatin, and simvastatin. Furthermore, activation of CXCR7 by SDF-1, TC14012, or I-TAC all prompted macrophage migration, which was significantly suppressed by atorvastatin

Selleckchem MAPK inhibitor treatment, but not by the CXCR4 antagonist. We conclude that atorvastatin modulates macrophage migration by down-regulating CXCR7 expression, suggesting a new CXCR7-dependent mechanism of atorvastatin to benefit atherosclerosis treatment beyond its lipid lowering effect. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Ca2+ signaling is the astrocyte form of excitability and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role as an intracellular Ca2+ store. Since the subcellular distribution of the ER influences Ca2+ signaling, we compared the arrangement of ER in astrocytes of hippocampus tissue and astrocytes in cell culture by electron microscopy. While the ER was usually located in close apposition to the plasma membrane in astrocytes in situ, the ER in cultured astrocytes was close to the nuclear membrane. Activation of metabotropic receptors linked to release of Ca2+

from ER stores triggered distinct responses in cultured and it? situ astrocytes. In culture, Ca2+ sionals were commonly first recorded close to the nucleus and with a delay at peripheral regions of the cells. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOC) as a route to buy Cl-amidine refill the Ca2+ stores could be easily identified in cultured astrocytes as the Zn2+-sensitive component of the Ca2+ signal. In contrast, such a Zn2+-sensitive component was not recorded in astrocytes from hippocampal slices despite of evidence for SOC. Our data indicate that both, astrocytes in situ and in vitro express SOC necessary

to refill stores, but that a SOC-related signal is not recorded in the cytoplasm of astrocytes in situ since the stores are close to the plasma membrane and the refill does not affect cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights Selleckchem GDC 0068 reserved.”
“Background: The delta opioid receptor (DOR) is a promising target to treat multiple indications, including alcoholism, anxiety, and nonmalignant pain. The potential of the DORs has been underappreciated, in part, due to relatively low functional expression of these receptors in naive states. However, chronic exposure to stress, opioids, and inflammation can induce a redistribution of DORs to the cell surface where they can be activated. Previously, DORs were shown to be selectively/exclusively present in spinal cord circuits mediating mechanical sensitivity but not those mediating thermal nociception under naive conditions.

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