Results. Median (interquartile range) of des-acyl ghrelin level, was 167 (121-195) pg/ml in HF versus 149 (130-223) pg/ml in post-HTx, p = NS. Acylated ghrelin level was 76 (51-99) pg/ml
versus 13 (0-30) pg/ml, p smaller than 0.001. Acylated/total Ion Channel Ligand Library cell line ratios were 0.33 (0.20-0.47) versus 0.08 (0-0.13), p smaller than HF 0.001. The correlation between acylated and total ghrelin levels was greater in HF than that in HTx. Acyl ghrelin correlated inversely with body mass index in HF, but not in HTx. Conclusion. Acylated ghrelin and the acylated/total ratio were dramatically higher in HF compared with those in HTx. Acylation rather than secretion of ghrelin is upregulated in HF and the resistance to ghrelin’s anabolic and appetite-stimulating effects is not at the level of acylation, but downstream at the ghrelin-receptor
“Long interspersed element-1s (LINE-1 or L1s) are abundant retrotransposons check details that occur in mammalian genomes and that can cause insertional mutagenesis and genomic instability. L1 activity is generally repressed in most cells and tissues but has been found in some embryonic cells and, in particular, in neural progenitors. Moreover, L1 retrotransposition can be induced by several DNA-damaging agents. We have carried out experiments to verify whether L1 retrotransposition is affected by oxidative DNA damage, which plays a role in a range of human diseases, including cancer and inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease. To this purpose, BE(2)C neuroblastoma cells, which
are thought to represent embryonic precursors of sympathetic neurons, have been treated with hydrogen peroxide and subjected to an in vitro retrotransposition assay involving an episomal L1(RP) element tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein. Our results indicate that hydrogen peroxide treatment induces an increase HSP990 in the retrotransposition of transiently transfected L1(RP) and an increase in the expression of endogenous L1 transcripts. An increase of gamma-H2AX foci and changes in the mRNA levels of MRE11, RAD50, NBN and ERCC1 (all involved in DNA repair) have also been found. Thus, oxidative stress can cause L1 dysregulation.”
“Decellularized bone/bone marrow was prepared to provide a microenvironment mimicking that of the bone marrow for three-dimensional culture in vitro. Bone/bone marrows were hydrostatically pressed at 980 MPa at 30 degrees C for 10 min to dismantle the cells. Then, they were washed with EGM-2 and further treated in an 80% EtOH to remove the cell debris and lipid, respectively. After being rinsed and shaken with PBS again, treated bone/bone marrows were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H-E) to assess the efficacy of decellularization.