The swelling behavior of the membranes was evaluated under variou

The swelling behavior of the membranes was evaluated under various temperatures and pH. The curve of the swelling ratio for the PAN-NIPAAm showed a lower critical solution temperature. Then, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was loaded into the pNIPAAm layer. The effects of CLA on the blood coagulation and oxidative learn more stress were evaluated with the use of human blood. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by the chemiluminescence (CL) method to evaluate the oxidative stress. Furthermore, the removal of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) by CLA-loaded PAN-NIPAAm was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent

assay. The results show that the LCST swelling curve,vas at 37 degrees C. PNIPAAm chains form expanded structures under 37 degrees C. At temperatures greater than 37 degrees C, however, die chains farm compact structures by dehydration. This makes PNIPAAM membrane due to rapid hydration and dehydration changes of the polymer chain. In addition, the swelling ratio increased by 71% when selleck inhibitor the pH increased from 5 to 10, The concentration of LPS can be reduced by CLA-loaded PAN-NIPAAm 2.1 and 1.2 times of that by unmodified PAN and PAN-NIPAAm membranes,

respectively. In addition, the level of ROS against CLA-loaded PAN-NIPAAm was reduced significantly than that against unmodified PAN and PAN-NIPAAm. Therefore CLA-loaded PAN-NIPAAm membrane could offer protection for patients against oxidative stress and could also inhibit lipopolysaccharide for clinical applications. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 113: 3222-3227,2009″
“Unique epitaxial two-phase vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) (BiFeO3)(x)center dot(Sm2O3)(1-x) thin films were deposited on SrTiO3(001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The VAN thin films exhibit a highly ordered vertical columnar structure with high epitaxial quality. We demonstrate that the strains of the two phases in both out-of-plane and in-plane directions call be tuned by the deposition parameters during growth, eg, deposition

frequency and film composition of the nanocomposite The strain tunability is found to be directly related to the systematic variation in the column widths in the nanocomposite The dielectric property Measurement shows that increasing vertical strain control will lead to a systematic dielectric loss reduction in the VAN thin films. This study suggests a promising avenue in achieving tunable strain in functional oxide thin films by using VAN structures. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3257175]“
“An antimicrobial peptide produced by Bacillus subtilis KU25, KU43, and KU44 was isolated from traditional Korean fermented foods and characterized. It was named as subtilin KU25, KU43, and KU44. Subtilin KU25, KU43, and KU44 were sensitive against alpha-chymotrypsin, protease XIII, and various proteinase enzymes, respectively. B.

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