“TIBA is a tool to reconstruct phylogenetic trees from rea

“TIBA is a tool to reconstruct phylogenetic trees from rearrangement data that consist of ordered lists of synteny blocks (or genes), where each synteny block is shared with all of its homologues in the input genomes. The evolution of these synteny blocks, through rearrangement operations, is modelled by the uniform Double-Cut-and-Join model. Using a true distance estimate

under this model and simple distance-based methods, TIBA reconstructs a phylogeny of the input genomes. Unlike any previous tool for inferring phylogenies from rearrangement data, TIBA uses novel methods of robustness estimation to provide support values for the edges in the inferred tree.”
“Background/Aims: To investigate

www.selleckchem.com/products/10058-f4.html the morphological changes of the inner retinal layer by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) after idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (MH) surgery. Methods: In a retrospective selleck chemicals llc study, the authors evaluated 52 eyes of 49 patients with MH closed following vitrectomy. All patients were followed postoperatively for more than 6 months. Cross-sectional and retinal surface images were obtained using Cirrus high-definition OCT before and after surgery. In 24 of the 52 eyes, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) was analyzed. Results: The incidence of dissociated optic nerve fiber layer (DONFL) increased gradually over time after surgery. 57.7% had

defects of only the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and 30.8% had defects in the inner plexifornn layer at 6 months after surgery. Postoperative selleck compound best-corrected visual acuity did not differ significantly based on the depth of the DONFL (p = 0.299). There were no changes in FAF in the area with DONFL. Conclusions: DONFL is characterized by progressive defects that are not limited to RNFL thickness. The healing process after vitrectomy for MH is not limited in the RNFL affecting deeper structural changes. Further investigations are required to evaluate the pathophysiological mechanism of inner retinal change after MH surgery. Copyright (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: Worldwide diversity of alleles of D4 receptor gene (DRD4), linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is mostly the result of length and single nucleotide polymorphisms in a 48-bp tandem repeat (VNTR). Alleles containing from two (2R) to eleven (11R) repeats have been identified. The most common are 4R, 7R and 2R. Aim: To study the association of ADHD risk with DRD4 genotypes in Chilean students.

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