(5-hmC) is a newly described epig


(5-hmC) is a newly described epigenetic modification. It is generated by the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) by the ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of enzymes. Various studies have shown that 5-hmC is present in high levels in the brain. Its lower affinity to methyl-binding proteins as compared to 5-mC suggests that it might have a different role in the regulation of gene expression, while it is also implicated in the DNA demethylation process. Interestingly, various widely used methods for DNA methylation detection fail to discriminate between 5-hmC and 5-mC, while numerous specific techniques are currently being developed. Recent studies have indicated an increase of 5-hmC with age in the mouse brain as well as an age- and gene-expression-level-related enrichment of 5-hmC in genes implicated in neurodegeneration. These findings suggest that 5-hmC LBH589 mouse may play an important role in the etiology and course of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. The present perspective summarizes the current knowledge on 5-hmC, discusses methodological challenges related to its detection, and suggests future strategies for examining INCB024360 chemical structure the functional role of this epigenetic modification and its

possible implication in aging and Alzheimer’s disease.”
“Advances in the past few years have helped clinicians understand some of the pathogenetic mechanisms of Graves orbitopathy (GO), particularly the role of receptors for TSH and insulin-like growth factor I in the orbit. Optimal treatment strategies have been formulated and published by the European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy, which are hoped to improve the management of patients with this condition. The administration of intravenous pulses of steroids has been established as a superior treatment approach compared with other steroid regimens. in addition, orbital radiotherapy was effective in a subgroup of patients with GO who had eye dysmotility. The use of immunotherapies

for the treatment of GO is currently being explored; of these, rituximab has emerged as a promising new agent.”
“Several strategies have been devised to manage in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL) subluxation. We describe ABT263 a method of fixating the IOL-capsular bag complex to the sclera using the fibrotic ring that develops around the continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC). Two, preferably 3, double-armed 10-0-polypropylene sutures are passed around the fibrotic CCC rim of the capsule and out the Hoffman scleral pockets and then tied in the scleral tunnels to center the IOL-bag complex. This technique provides an alternative approach to repositioning and fixating the IOL-bag complex that is especially useful in cases in which removal and replacement of the IOL would be difficult. It also provides more than 2-point fixation to achieve perfect IOL centration.”
“Plasmodium vivax is a major cause of febrile illness in endemic areas of Asia, Central and South America, and the horn of Africa.

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