“Periodontal disease is a localised

“Periodontal disease is a localised KPT-8602 clinical trial inflammatory response caused by the infection of a periodontal pocket arising from the accumulation of subgingival plaque. Periodontal disease has been considered as a possible risk factor for other systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and pre-term low birth weight infants. Advances in understanding the aetiology, epidemiology and microbiology of periodontal pocket flora have revolutionised the therapeutic strategies for the management of periodontal disease progression. This review summarises the recent developments in

the field of intra-pocket drug delivery systems and identifies areas where further research may lead to a clinically effective intra-pocket delivery system.”
“In humans, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), with its sulfate, is the most abundant adrenal steroid, whereas the rat adrenals are not capable of synthesizing this steroid. Circulating concentrations of DHEA sulfate lie in the millimolar range and those of DHEA in the subnanomolar

range. DHEA exerts protective potential during vascular remodeling, Ro-3306 chemical structure although the underlying mechanisms of this protection are imperfectly defined. We hypothesized that physiological doses of DHEA alter signaling pathways that are of central importance for vascular integrity. We exposed human endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts to DHEA (10(-6) to 10(-10) mol/L) and observed

a dose-and time-dependent increase of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 activation. Similar results were observed in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, in rat vascular smooth muscle cells, we found altered phosphorylation and cellular translocation of the transcription factor FoxO1. Pharmacological blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor Roscovitine (MR) with eplerenone or small interfering RNA-mediated MR-silencing prevented DHEA-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and its effects on FoxO1. Of note, in a cell-based MR transactivation assay, we did not find any agonist effect of DHEA on MR activity. We conclude that DHEA induces early signaling events in vascular cells that might underlie the DHEA-mediated protection against vasculopathies. These effects are dependent on the MR, although the finding that DHEA fails to act as a direct MR agonist suggests that additional signaling proteins are involved. In this regard, DHEA may either interact with coeffectors to modify MR activity or serves as a ligand for a yet unknown receptor that might transactivate the MR. (Hypertension. 2011;58:471-478.) .

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