The external environment being drastically different from that of

The external environment being drastically different from that of globular proteins, the intra-protein interactions

in membrane proteins are also expected to be different. Hence, statistical potentials representing the features of inter-residue interactions based exclusively on the structures of membrane proteins are much needed. Currently, a reasonable number of structures are available, making it possible to undertake such an analysis on membrane proteins. In this study we have examined the inter-residue interaction propensities of amino acids in the membrane spanning regions of the alpha-helical membrane Entospletinib clinical trial (HM) proteins. Recently we have shown that valuable information can be obtained on globular proteins by the evaluation of the pair-wise interactions Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor of amino acids by classifying them into different structural environments, based on factors such as the secondary structure or the number of contacts that a residue can make. Here we have explored the possible ways of classifying the intra-protein environment of HM proteins and have developed scoring functions based on different classification schemes. On evaluation of different schemes, we find that the scheme which classifies

amino acids to different intra-contact environment is the most promising one. Based on this classification scheme, we also redefine the hydrophobicity scale of amino acids in HM proteins.”
“Purpose: A delay in the diagnosis and treatment of iatrogenic obstructive ureteral injury is the most important Cyclooxygenase (COX) prognostic factor for worse results in terms of lesion repair and renal function recovery. The role of the time of relief in determining the onset of renal failure and arterial hypertension in patients with obstructive ureteral injury was evaluated. In addition, we analyzed the prognostic value of the ratio of urinary epidermal growth factor-to-monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 in predicting long-term renal function deterioration.

Materials and Methods: A total of 76 patients with obstructive

ureteral injury and treated with reconstructive procedures were prospectively enrolled in the study. The ratio of epidermal growth factor-to-monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 was evaluated 4 weeks after the relief of obstruction. After a median followup of 60.8 months, estimated creatinine clearance and (99m)technetium-mercaptoacetyltriglycine scan were evaluated.

Results: Within 2 weeks of the obstructive ureteral injury 36 patients underwent surgery for relief of obstruction while in the remaining 40 patients the surgery was performed after more than 2 weeks. Significant differences between the 2 groups were observed regarding mean mercaptoacetyltriglycine clearance of the obstructed kidney (p <0.0001), estimated creatinine clearance (p <0.001) and ratio of epidermal growth factor-to-monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 (p <0.0001).

Here, we developed a new behavioral task that examines memory for

Here, we developed a new behavioral task that examines memory for the order of sequential nonspatial events presented as trial-unique odor pairings. When the interval between odors within a studied pair was brief (3 sec), bilateral dorsal CA3 lesions severely disrupted memory for their order, whereas dorsal CA1 lesions did not affect performance. However, when the inter-item interval was extended to 10 sec, CA1 VX-680 supplier lesions, as well as CA3 lesions, severely disrupted

performance. These findings suggest that the role of CA3 in sequence memory is not limited to spatial information, but rather appears to be a fundamental property of CA3 function. In contrast, CA1 becomes involved when memories for events must be held or sequenced over long intervals. Thus, CA3 and CA1 are both involved in memory for sequential nonspatial events that compose unique experiences, and these areas play different roles that are distinguished by the duration of time that must be bridged between key events.”

expression of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) by stable transfection appeared to attenuate paclitaxel-induced apoptotic cell death in human glioblastoma U87MG cells. The present results suggest that selleck the apoptotic functions of p53 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (INK) are affected by FPPS. Farnesyl diphosphate, a catalytic product of FPPS, also attenuated mentioned paclitaxel-induced apoptotic cell death. As expected, the FPPS inhibitor, pamidronate, enhanced paclitaxel-induced apoptotic cell death. The present results suggest that FPPS plays an important role in apoptotic cell death of cancer cells by blocking the INK signaling cascade and activating mevalonate metabolism in paclitaxel-treated glioblastoma cells. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Cannabinoid CB1

receptor is abundantly expressed throughout the CNS and is implicated in numerous physiological and behavioral functions, including appetite and feeding. In the present study, wild-type and CB1 heterozygous and homozygous knockout mice were tested on an instrumental Thymidylate synthase outcome-selective devaluation task to assess changes in acquired instrumental response levels for a distinct food reward following selective satiation. Deletion of CB1 receptor, as well as reduction in CB1 expression (HET), produced deficits in outcome-selective instrumental devaluation. These results identify a critical role for CB1 receptor in the ability of animals to represent, update, and/or use sensory-specific outcome representations to alter appetitive behaviors.”

The ability of short-acting insulin secretagogues to reduce the risk of diabetes or cardiovascular events in people with impaired glucose tolerance is unknown.

5 (13.2-29.5) days, p < 0.001), longer duration of antibiotic

5 (13.2-29.5) days, p < 0.001), longer duration of antibiotic therapy (46.6 +/- 19.9 days vs 22.0 +/- 14.6 days, p < 0.001), longer duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy (32.3 +/- 16.3 days vs 13.6 +/- 14.3 days, p < 0.001), longer duration of wound before admission (44 (31-64.5)

days vs 33 (23-45.5) days, p = 0.034), and longer time to wound healing (239.8 +/- 108.2 days vs 183.1 +/- 73 days, p = 0.011). There were more surgical procedures in the DFO group than in the STI group (24/37 buy C59 wnt (64.8%) vs 11/36 (30.5%), p = 0.003), and during hospitalization, 22 patients in the DFO group and 5 patients in STI group underwent minor amputation (59.4% vs 13.8%, p < 0.001). Conclusion : The presence of osteomyelitis negatively affects both the treatment and outcome of diabetic foot infections.”
“Background: Taiwan has a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic that has recently shifted to an increase among injection drug users (IDUs). IDUs co-infected with HIV and tuberculosis (TB) have a high risk of progression from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active TB. Methods: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of LTBI among IDUs by TSPOT.TB and tuberculin skin test (TST), in a large methadone program in Taipei, Taiwan. Consenting click here participants were interviewed by a trained worker regarding sociodemographics,

substance use history, and health factors. Results: Multivariate analysis was used to determine risks associated with each test outcome. Of 287 participants, 165 (58.7%) tested TSPOT.TB-positive and 244 (85.0%) tested TST-positive. The mean age was 44 y, and 7.3% were HIV-infected. Kappa statistics indicated slight concordance between TSPOT.TB and TST. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for potential confounders, TSPOT.TB positivity was significantly associated with age >= 50 y (reference, 20 -34 y). A history of ever having had contact Cyclooxygenase (COX) with a TB-infected person was associated with TST positivity, whereas HIV infection was inversely associated with

TSPOT.TB positivity and TST positivity. Conclusions: This study shows a high prevalence of LTBI in individuals at risk for HIV infection in Taipei, Taiwan. Future TB prevention programs should particularly focus on IDUs.”
“Background: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) constitutes about 10% to 20% of all cases of tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients and more than 50% of the cases in HIV-positive individuals worldwide. Little information is available on the clonal diversity of Mycobacterium species in Ethiopia from EPTB. Methods: This study was carried out on smear-negative EPTB patients to molecularly characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains. A questionnaire, smear staining, culture, deletion typing, and spoligotyping were employed. Results: The proportional distribution of EPTB and isolates did not vary substantially (p > 0.05) amongst the socio-demographic parameters considered in the current investigation.

e. a stronger N1) as compared to the GG genotype group. Mental ro

e. a stronger N1) as compared to the GG genotype group. Mental rotation performance varied across genotypes when demands on mental rotation were high. Here, carriers of the -308 A allele performed better than the GG genotype group. This is paralleled by the neurophysiological data showing genotype-dependent variations in parietal positivities only under the condition of high demands on mental rotation. The finding of enhanced attentional and mental rotation performance in A allele carriers supports recent findings that the A allele of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) enhances cognitive performance BIX 1294 on a general

measure of cognitive processing speed. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Prenatal exposure to a relatively high-dose ethanol (EtOH) caused anxiety-like behavior of adult male rat offspring. Previous studies have demonstrated that GABA system in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) is involved in the pathogensis of anxiety-related disorders. The role of GABAergic system in the BLA was investigated in anxiety-like behavior evoked by prenatal EtOH exposure. The infusion of midazolam (MDZ),

a positive modulator of GABA(A) receptor, into the BLA prevented anxiety-like behavior in EtOH-offspring without affecting the corresponding behavior of control offspring. The data suggest that anxiety-like behavior could be causally related to increased neuronal excitability attributable to depressed GABAergic inhibition in the BLA. To test this hypothesis, evoked potential was studied using brain slices from EtOH-offspring. Potential evoked in the BLA by single stimuli applied to external capsule showed multispike AC220 supplier responses, indicative of GABAergic disinhibition. These multiple

responses were no longer evident after the perfusion with MDZ. In the slices from EtOH-offspring, paired-pulse inhibition (GABA(A)-dependent) was suppressed. Also, Oxaprozin in EtOH-offspring, long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced by a single train of high frequency stimulation, which did not induce LIP in control rats. Moreover, MDZ pretreatment prevented the facilitating effect of EtOH on LTP induction. The data provide the functional evidence that prenatal EtOH exposure attenuates GABAergic inhibition in the BLA resulting in neuronal hyperexcitability and anxiety-like behavior of adult rat offspring. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: In marker lesion experiments a single bladder tumor is deliberately left unresected for later ablation by intravesical instillation of a novel agent. While the benefits are clear, eg the opportunity to examine the effect of therapy on measurable disease, the safety and medical ethics of these experiments are less obvious. We review the goals, inclusion criteria, definition of success, agents used, effectiveness, safety and ethics of marker lesion studies, and suggest a framework for future experiments.

4 +/- 5.3 mu g/dL. In multivariate analyses adjusting for mother’

4 +/- 5.3 mu g/dL. In multivariate analyses adjusting for mother’s education level, father’s education level, average monthly income, hemoglobin and sex, WRAVMA scores were inversely related to blood lead level. An increase of 10 mu g/dL was associated with a decrease of

2.6 points (95% Cl: -4.5 to -0.7, P = 0.006) in the Visual Motor Composite score and a decrease of 2.9 points (95% CI: -5.1 to -0.7, P = 0.011) in the Drawing subtest. Exploration of the shape of the dose-effect relationships using spline functions indicated some non-inearities, with the steepest declines in visual-motor skills occurring at higher blood lead levels. Among urban Indian children, higher blood lead levels are associated with decreased visual-motor abilities, particularly visual-motor integration. Published by Elsevier Inc.”

Paraplegia remains a devastating complication for patients Lenvatinib price undergoing thoracic aortic procedures. Although surgical adjuncts have evolved to reduce the risk of paraplegia, no pharmacologic therapies have proven efficacious in attenuating spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. Effects of erythropoietin in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury, however, have not yet been elucidated. Q-VD-Oph datasheet We hypothesized that pretreatment with erythropoietin would attenuate functional and cytoarchitectural spinal cord injury related to high-risk aortic procedures.

Methods: Adult male mice were subjected to ischemia-reperfusion. Aortic arch and proximal left subclavian arteries were clamped for 5 minutes; animals were observed for 48 hours. Neurologic scores of hind limb function were assessed every 12 hours. Experimental groups consisted of treatment with erythropoietin 4 hours before crossclamping (n=7), ischemic controls (n=7), and sham ischemia (operation without crossclamping, n=6). Thoracolumbar sections of spinal cord were removed after 48 hours and preserved for cytoarchitectural analysis.

Results: Mice pretreated with erythropoietin exhibited significant preservation of hind limb motor function. All mice without pretreatment were paralyzed at 48 hours. Mice

with erythropoietin pretreatment had improved motor function; 3 had no measurable neurologic deficit at 48 hours. Histologic analysis in mice treated with erythropoietin showed markedly reduced neuronal cell injury.

Conclusions: Erythropoeitin preserves both function Adenosine triphosphate and histologic appearance in mice undergoing spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion. With further elucidation of mechanisms of protection and optimal administration, erythropoietin could become an important adjunct in reducing the incidence and severity of spinal cord injury related to aortic interventions. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2011;141:256-60)”
“Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder marked by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons, leading to a decrease of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). DA is metabolized by monoamine oxidase to 3,4-dihydroxyphenyacetaldehyde (DOPAL).

Nonetheless, current

views of MS pathogenesis remain focu

Nonetheless, current

views of MS pathogenesis remain focused on the role of myelin-specific autoimmunity, and the potential contribution of autoimmune responses to axonal and neuronal antigens is ignored. Drawing on experience gained from work with other neurodegenerative diseases, we hypothesize that autoimmunity, particularly pathogenic antibodies to neuronal and axonal antigens, plays a significant role in the development CB-5083 mw of axonal pathology in MS. This concept offers a new perspective of disease pathogenesis and therapeutic approaches to prevent irreversible axonal loss and chronic disability in MS.”
“BACKGROUND: Stenting for symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease is a therapeutic option in patients in whom medical therapy fails.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the periprocedural complication rates and mid-term restenosis rates in patients treated with balloon-expandable stents (BESs) compared

with self-expanding stents (SESs).

METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive patients treated with intracranial stents at 5 institutions was performed. Predictors of 30-day stroke and death as well as mid-term GW-572016 cell line restenosis rates were analyzed.

RESULTS: A total of 670 lesions were treated in 637 patients with a mean age of 57 6 13 years. A total of 454 lesions (68%) were treated with BESs and 216 lesions (32%) with SESs. The overall 30-day periprocedural complication rate was 6.1%, without any difference noted between the 2 groups. Patients treated within 24 hours of the index event were significantly more likely to have experienced a periprocedural complication (odds ratio [OR], 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: oxyclozanide 1.7-6.7; P < .007), whereas focal lesions were less likely to have a complication (OR, 0.31; 95% CI: 0.13-0.72; P < .001). Midterm restenosis was less likely in patients with a lower percentage of posttreatment stenosis (OR, 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99; P <

.006), which was more common in BES-treated patients and focal concentric lesions (OR, 0.33; 95% CI: 0.23-0.55; P < .0001).

CONCLUSION: BESs have periprocedural complication rates similar to those of SESs. Less posttreatment stenosis was associated with lower rates of mid-term restenosis. Future randomized trials comparing BESs and SESs may help to identify the stent type that is safest and most durable.”
“Recent studies indicate that TNF (tumor necrosis factor) receptor signalling is a key player in HIV infection. HIV proteins have been shown to target TNF receptor signalling, leading both to apoptosis of uninfected bystander T cells and to sustained viral replication in infected T cells and macrophages. This article proposes a model that highlights the role of HIV proteins in the modulation of TNF receptor signalling and could explain both immune suppression and the formation of viral reservoirs during HIV infection.”
“BACKGROUND: Radiosurgery is the main alternative to microsurgical resection for benign meningiomas.

Clinical diagnosis and improvement were evaluated using the Clini

Clinical diagnosis and improvement were evaluated using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Recall with EM was associated with a significant decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb]) in the lateral PFC as compared with Recall without EM. Longitudinally, [oxy-Hb] during Recall significantly decreased and the amount of decrease was significantly correlated with clinical improvement when the post-treatment data was compared with that of the pre-treatment. Our results suggest that performing EM during Recall reduces the over-activity of the lateral PFC, which may be part of the biological basis for the efficacy of EMDR in PTSD. LAIRS may be Dactolisib mouse a useful

tool for objective assessment of psychological intervention in PTSD (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society All rights reserved”
“Objectives. Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) duplex scanning is utilized to screen for high-grade (>= 70%) SMA stenosis (peak systolic velocity [PSV]

>= 275 cm/second) and for follow-up of SMA bypass grafts and stents. Expected duplex scan findings in SMA bypass grafts have been recently reported. There is, however, little information correlating duplex scans from stented SMAs to procedural angiograms in patients treated for high-grade (>= 70%) SMA stenosis. We report validation of duplex scan criteria for high-grade native artery SMA stenosis, and also duplex scan examined results after SMA stent placement correlated with angiograms and angiographic measured pressure Y-27632 cell line gradients pre- and post-SMA stent placement.

Methods and Results. Thirty-five patients with symptoms consistent with mesenteric ischemia were treated Ceramide glucosyltransferase with SMA stents. Pre-intervention angiography demonstrated >70% SMA stenosis or SMA occlusion in all but 3 patients. Pre-intervention pressure gradients were obtained in 20 stenotic but patent SMAs and averaged 57 +/- 38 mm Hg; range,

15 to 187 mm Hg. Eighteen of the patients had SMA duplex scan prior to angiography, and 17 demonstrated an SMA PSV >= 275 cm/second or no flow, (mean 450 +/- 152 cm/second in patent arteries; range, 256 to 770 cm/second). Post-stent placement angiography demonstrated <30% SMA stenosis in all 35 patients. Post-stent pressure gradients were obtained in 22 patients and averaged 11 +/- 13 mm Hg; range, 0 to 45 mm Hg, (P < .001 compared to pre-stent pressure gradients in a paired test) and were elevated in patients with >= 60% celiac artery stenosis compared with those with <60% celiac artery stenosis (P < .006). Mean early post-stent duplex PSV scans obtained in 13 patients, were 336 +/- 45 cm/second; range, 279 to 416 cm/second (P = .011 compared to pre-stent PSVs).

Conclusion: SMA stenting provides good anatomic results and significantly reduces measured pressure gradients.

Polyclonal antibodies against Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis

Polyclonal antibodies against Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) 2C protein were generated by immunisation of rabbits with a peptide comprising amino acids 31-210 of the protein. Antibodies were used to investigate the localisation of 2C in infected cells by Wortmannin indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Analysis of infected cells revealed that the distribution of 2C changed during infection. Early on. the protein was localised in the perinuclear region with punctate staining in the cytoplasm and at later stages,

it was concentrated in one large structure in close proximity to the nucleus and occupying almost 50% of the cell size. Dual-label immunofluorescence using wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and anti-TMEV 2C antibodies suggested that 2C, and therefore virus replication, is targeted to the Golgi apparatus. At late stages of infection Golgi staining was dispersed, indicating potential reorganisation of membranes. Infection was accompanied by “”rounding up”" of the cells and a redistribution of actin around the putative replication complex. The results suggest that TMEV behaves similarly to FMDV which also forms replication complexes in the perinuclear region. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”

lines of evidence show that visual perception is altered at the locus of visual attention: detection is faster, performance better and spatial resolution increased. It is however not known whether attention can affect visual perception further away from its locus. selleck screening library In the present study, we specifically question whether and how visual attention influences spatial perception away from its locus, independently from any saccadic preparation. We use a landmark task in which subjects have to estimate the location of a bisection stimulus relative to two landmark

stimuli BCKDHB 15 degrees apart, while fixating one of them. This task is combined with a highly demanding discrimination task performed on one of the two landmarks. This allows us to test for the effect of spatial attention allocation on distance perception, as measured by the subject estimation of the landmarks midpoint. We show that the estimated midpoint is displaced towards the attentional locus, both when attention is instructed on the central landmark or on the peripheral landmark. These results suggest an overrepresentation of space around the attentional locus that can affect perception up to 8 degrees away, and question the existence of an objective spatial representation. They are in line with reports of spatial distortion in hemineglect patients while they strikingly contrast with the spatial compression reported around the time of saccadic execution. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the main viral cause of severe respiratory infections in children and a common cause of morbidity in the elderly.

Spironolactone is a promising therapeutic option for alleviating

Spironolactone is a promising therapeutic option for alleviating remodeling after left ventricular restoration.”
“Objective: The aortic media lesion is a key pathologic feature in thoracic aortic dissection. To identify key proteins in aortic media lesions that may contribute to its pathogenesis, we performed proteomic studies to find differentially expressed proteins in the media from diseased and normal

thoracic aorta.

Methods: JIB04 supplier Ascending aortic segments were obtained from patients with thoracic aortic dissection (n = 8) and age-matched normal donors ( n 5 6). The differentially expressed proteins of their media tissues were analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and verified by Western blotting. Oxidative stress was measured by functional assays in a larger sample size (15 patients and 10 controls).

Results: Image analysis of the protein profiles from 2-dimensional gels revealed 126 differentially expressed proteins, of which 26 were identified by mass spectrometry. Among them, extracellular superoxide dismutase, an enzyme involved in oxidative stress, was

selected for further studies. Western blotting showed that extracellular superoxide dismutase expression was more than 50% lower in patient samples than in controls (P < .001). Superoxide dismutase activity was consistently decreased (P <.001) and lipid peroxidation was increased (P = .019) in patient media homogenates compared with that in controls.

Conclusion: Our results indicate

that protein expression this website profiles in the aortic media from thoracic aortic dissection differ significantly from that of controls, which may provide important insights into the disease mechanisms. This study also suggests that increased oxidative stress may play an important role in the disease.”
“Objective: Complexity of mitral valve repair for myxomatous disease has led to low adoption. many We report initial experience with a new ring designed specifically for myxomatous disease, the Myxo-ETlogix ( Edwards Lifesciences LLC, Irvine, Calif).

Methods: From March 15, 2006, through November 19, 2007, 129 patients underwent mitral valve surgery for pure myxomatous disease, and 124 valves ( 96.1%) were repaired. The Myxo-ETlogix ring was used in 100 cases and the Physio ring ( Edwards) in 24. The Myxo-ETlogix design includes a 3-dimensional shape to reduce systolic anterior motion and a larger orifice to accommodate elongated leaflets and decrease need for sliding plasty. Direct mitral valve measurements were made. Sizing was based on A2 height, and choice of ring type was based on unresected leaflet heights.

Results: There was no operative mortality or lasting perioperative morbidity.

(C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The pattern of

(C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The pattern of brain atrophy find more in semantic dementia and its associated cognitive effects have attracted a considerable body of research, but the nature of core impairments remains disputed. A key issue is whether the disease encompasses one neurocognitive network (semantics) or two (language and semantics). In order to address these conflicting perspectives,we conducted a longitudinal investigation of two semantic dementia patients, in which behavioural

performance across a range of measures of language and semantic performance was assessed and interpreted in the context of annually acquired MRI scans. Our results indicated a core semantic impairment in early stages of the disease, associated with atrophy of the inferior, anterior temporal cortex. Linguistic impairments emerged later, and were contingent on atrophy having spread into areas widely believed to subserve core language processes (left posterior perisylvian, inferior frontal and insular cortex). We claim, therefore, that phonological, syntactic and morphological processing deficits in semantic dementia reflect damage to core language areas. Further, we propose that much of the current controversy over the nature of deficits in semantic dementia reflect a tendency in the literature to adopt a static perspective

on what is a progressive disease. An approach in which the relationship between progressive neural changes and behavioural Blasticidin S concentration change over time is carefully mapped, offers a more constraining data-set from which to draw inferences about the relationship between language,

semantics and the brain. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Attention and awareness are intimately related concepts. Nevertheless, the two phenomena are empirically dissociable: visuo-spatial attention can act in the absence of visual awareness. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record cortical neural activity from hemianopic patient GY while he performed a peripheral tetracosactide orientation-discrimination task in the context of an attention-cueing paradigm. The luminance contrast of target stimuli was set at GY’s threshold for reports of awareness (a feeling “”that something happened”" in his blind visual field). GY’s accuracy was significantly greater than chance and comparable, with or without awareness. GY was significantly faster to respond correctly on valid-cue versus invalid-cue trials, even in the absence of awareness, confirming the action of visuo-spatial attention in the absence of awareness. Time-frequency analysis of spectral power in the gamma frequency range (30-90 Hz), averaged over left parieto-occipital sensors, revealed effects of cue-validity independent of reported awareness, and effects of awareness independent of cue-validity.