For cases vs. controls there were significant differences in the

For cases vs. controls there were significant differences in the following: median age (40 (range 18-82) vs. 56 (range 18-89) years; p < 0.001), female gender (63.6% vs. 44.3%; p < 0.05), Bedouin Arab origin (41.1% vs. 26.4%; p < 0.05), pyrexia (97.6% vs. 88.5%; p < 0.01), cough (96.3% vs. 75%; p < 0.05), admission to the intensive care unit (18.7% vs. 10.6%; p < 0.05), and CURB-65 score >= 3 (2.8% vs. 11.4%; p < 0.05). Laboratory values including white blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts were lower in cases than in controls, whereas creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were higher (p < 0.01). By logistic regression models, young age, Bedouin

origin, and lower WBC and platelet counts MS-275 were independent risk factors for the acquisition of CAP with influenza A/H1N1.

Conclusions: In our region CAP with influenza A/H1N1 occurred in younger females of Bedouin Arab origin with less co-morbidity. No difference in mortality was found. We believe that inequalities in socioeconomic conditions could explain

our findings. (C) 2011 International Society for Infectious SB203580 nmr Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Diarrheal illnesses account for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most cases of diarrhea are caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites. Advances in molecular biology and epidemiology have allowed the identification of emerging pathogens that may cause or, at least, may be associated with diarrhea. However, the same advances have also revealed the complexity of the gut microbiome, suggesting that a potential agent of diarrhea may also been found in healthy individuals. In addition, most of the newly identified emerging agents of diarrhea are ubiquitous and have not yet fulfilled Koch’s postulates.

Research investigations should address appropriate matched controls and integrate findings from medical microbiology, epidemiology and molecular biology. This integrative approach should provide insights to our knowledge regarding PU-H71 research buy exposition to common source or risk factors. Here, we aim to review some of these emerging bacterial agents of diarrheas and propose guidelines or prescriptions that may help in defining causality.”
“Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, known as the hybrid, E. urograndis. Eighteen isolates of E. urograndis, clone 4622, were tested for plant growth promotion using the same clone.

52, P < 0.05; r = 0.58, P < 0.05 respectively). No correlat

52, P < 0.05; r = 0.58, P < 0.05 respectively). No correlations were found between RBP4 levels and insulin resistance in all studied groups. Our findings suggest that serum RBP4 levels

is associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-alpha) and is not associated Ferrostatin-1 molecular weight with insulin resistance among patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease.”
“BACKGROUND: The impact of mixtures of chloro-triazinic herbicides, such as atrazine and simazine, on aquatic ecosystems is of environmental concern. To study their biodegradation under various operational conditions, a binary community comprising Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Arthrobacter sp. attached to the porous support of a packed bed reactor, was evaluated.

RESULTS: The genetic analysis of the two atrazine-degrading strains revealed that genes atzA, atzB, atzC are present in both

bacteria, but only S. maltophilia possess atzD. Thus, by cultivating Arthrobacter sp. on these herbicides, cyanuric acid accumulation was observed. When the binary community was cultivated in the biofilm reactor, at all the loading rates probed, both herbicides were entirely removed. However, complete biodegradation of cyanuric acid was not achieved.

CONCLUSIONS: Even with a two-stage reactor, cyanuric acid was only partially removed. This fact could be attributed to the absence, in the second stage, of an easily degradable energy source, required by S. maltophilia for the uptake and cometabolic degradation of the recalcitrant heterocyclic ring. Responding to differences in nutritional conditions prevailing at each reactor stage, Oligomycin A purchase local differences in species’ predominance were clearly detected by microbiological and molecular biology methods. (C) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Two new phenolic compounds 4-(4-hydroxybenzyl) phenyl glucoside (gastrodin B, 1) and 1-hydroxymethyl-phenyl 4-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl) benzyl ether (gastrol B, 2) were isolated from the rhizomes of Gastrodia elata. Their structures were elucidated

on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical reaction. All compounds exhibited potent neuroprotective activity against H2O2-induced PC12 cell damage.”
“Background: Human paraoxonase-1 (PON1) R406 price inhibits LDL-oxidation and atherogenesis, and possesses lactonase activity. Decreased PON1 activity was found in hemodialyzed and renal transplanted patients. Cystatin C plays a protective role in atherosclerosis, and is a new, sensitive marker of renal function. The relationship between these two markers in renal failure has not been investigated.

Aims: The goal of this study was to clarify the relationship between PON1 activity, cystatin C and homocysteine in chronic renal failure. We also determined the levels of oxidatively modified LDL (oxLDL) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) to characterize lipid peroxidation.

Indeed, clinicians’ understanding of patients’ perspectives is th

Indeed, clinicians’ understanding of patients’ perspectives is the core component of medical empathy, but it is often assessed ATM/ATR inhibitor only from the patient’s point of view. Clinicians’ evaluations of patients’ perspectives should be studied and compared with patients’ reports so that problematic gaps between the two perspectives can be addressed. Copyright (C) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“We have studied the adsorption of Li atoms

at the hollow sites of graphene nanoribbons (zigzag and armchair), graphene, and fullerenes by means of density functional theory calculations including local and semilocal functionals. The binding energy of a Li atom on armchair nanoribbons [of about 1.70 eV for local spin density approximation (LSDA) and 1.20 eV for Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE)] is comparable to the corresponding value in graphene (1.55 and 1.04 eV for LSDA and PBE, respectively). Notably, the interaction between Li and zigzag nanoribbons is much stronger. The binding energy of Li at the edges of zigzag nanoribbons is about 50% stronger than in graphene for the functionals studied here.

While the charge transfer between the Li adatom and the zigzag nanoribbon significantly affects selleck compound the magnetic properties of the latter providing an additional interaction mechanism that is not present in a two-dimensional graphene or armchair nanoribbons, we find that the morphology of Selleckchem Ferrostatin-1 the edges, rather than magnetism, is responsible for the enhanced Li-nanoribbon interaction.”
“In this study, we aimed to prepare and characterize glass fiber-rein forced composites (GFRP) based on benzoxazine resins. Therefore, the molten resin from benzoxazine and bisoxazoline

with the latent curing agent was used as the matrix resin, and the properties of GFRP based on the molten resins were investigated. The properties of GFRP were estimated by mechanical properties, heat resistance, and flame resistance. As a result, it was found that GFRP based on the molten resins from benzoxazine and bisoxazoline with the latent curing agent showed good heat resistance, flame resistance, and mechanical properties compared with those of the conventional GFRP. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, tric. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 1256-1263, 2009″
“Background The International Breast Cancer Study Group conducted a phase III trial in Australian/New Zealand (ANZ) and Swiss/German/Austrian (SGA) centres on training doctors in clear and ethical information delivery about treatment options and strategies to encourage shared decision making. Methods Medical, surgical, gynaecological and radiation oncologists, and their patients for whom adjuvant breast cancer therapy was indicated, were eligible. Doctors were randomised to participate in a workshop with standardised teaching material and role playing. Patients were recruited in the experimental and control groups before and after the workshop.

Arabidopsis gem1 mutants lack the male germline as a result of di

Arabidopsis gem1 mutants lack the male germline as a result of disturbed microspore polarity, division asymmetry,

and cytokinesis and represent loss-of-function mutants in MOR1/GEM1, a plant orthologue of the conserved MAP215/Dis1 Givinostat inhibitor microtubule associated protein (MAP) family. This provides genetic evidence for the role of MAP215/Dis1 in the organization of gametophytic microtubule arrays, but it has remained unknown how microtubule arrays are affected in gem1 mutant microspores. Here, novel male gametophytic microtubule-reporter Nicotiana tabacum plants were constructed, expressing a green fluorescent protein-alpha-TUBULIN fusion protein (GFP-TUA6) under the control of a microspore-specific promoter. These plants allow effective visualization of all major male gametophytic microtubule arrays and provide useful tools to study the regulation of microtubule arrays by MAPs and other effectors. Depletion of TMBP200, a tobacco homologue of MOR1/GEM1 in gametophytic microtubule-reporter plants using microspore-targeted RNA interference, induced defects in microspore polarity, division asymmetry and cytokinesis that were associated with striking defects in phragmoplast position, orientation, and structure. Our observations Z-VAD-FMK concentration further reveal a requirement for TMBP200 in gametophytic spindle organization and a novel role in spindle position and orientation in polarized microspores.

These results provide direct evidence for the function of MAP215/Dis1 family protein TMBP200 in the organization of microtubule arrays critical for male germline formation in plants.”
“Study Design. Retrospective chart review of prospectively

collected data from 2 nonrandomized, nonconcurrent cohorts.

Objective. Early results of 2 lumbar interbody fusion procedures-open posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and minimally invasive (extreme lateral interbody fusion [XLIF])-were compared in octogenarians to demonstrate the safety of each in the extreme elderly populations.

Summary of Background selleck compound Data. Although spinal pathologies are common in the elderly patients, additional health conditions often preclude operative treatment because anesthesia, blood loss, and recovery are too demanding. Minimally invasive approaches reduce procedure-related morbidity and recovery time.

Methods. In our single-site prospective series of XLIF patients, 40 were identified as those aged >= 80 years with a minimum of 3-month follow-up. A complete, retrospective review of surgical patients treated in the same practice with traditional open posterior (PLIF) approach found 20 patients aged >= 80 years. Comparisons were made between groups to identify differences in morbidity and mortality rates.

Results. No clinically significant differences in demographics, diagnoses, or comorbidities were found between groups.

There has been no study of work productivity and

There has been no study of work productivity and ML323 activity in AD patients in relation to disease severity.

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of disease severity on work productivity and activity impairment (WPAI) in adult AD patients using the Japanese version of the questionnaire. Data were collected from 112 AD patients who visited the Jikei University Hospital. Outcomes as measured by the questionnaire included employment status, total work productivity impairment (TWPI) and total activity impairment (TAI). We investigated the correlation between TWPI or TAI scores and severity scoring of AD (SCORAD) for disease severity and dermatology life quality index (DLQI) for quality of life impairment. Both TWPI and TAI scores were significantly correlated with the SCORAD and DLQI scores (P < 0.001), indicating disease severity is check details significantly associated with WPAI in Japanese adult AD patients. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of treatments on WPAI for severe AD patients.”
“Nickel is a strong immunological sensitizer and may result in contact hypersensitivity. Case reports

of allergic reactions to intraoral nickel have occasionally been reported in the published work and these allergic reactions are generally of a delayed type (type IV). Here, we present a case of a nickel allergic

patient displaying frequent laryngeal edema attacks which required treatment with epinephrine injections followed by parenteral corticosteroid doses. Her complaints ceased after the removal of the dental bridge and the foods containing nickel. In summary, we propose that in the case of recurrent laryngeal edema attacks without any explainable cause, an allergic reaction due to nickel exposure should be taken into consideration.”
“A new spectrophotometric method employing a micellar medium is proposed for the determination of paracetamol in pharmaceuticals. The method is based on the acid hydrolysis of paracetamol to p-aminophenol (PAP), which under acidic conditions reacts with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde Selleck SRT2104 (p-DAC), producing a red compound (lambda(max) = 530 nm). This reaction can be enhanced five-fold in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The effects of all the parameters involved in both the hydrolysis step and the derivatization reaction were investigated using experimental design methodologies. The method presented a linear range of 0.2 to 3.9 mu g mL(-1) and an excellent correlation coefficient (r = 0.9996). The limit of detection was estimated to be 30.0 mu g/L. The technique was successfully applied for the determination of paracetamol in commercial brands of pharmaceuticals.

Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for myoglobin, d

Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for myoglobin, desmin and vimentin in varying degrees, but negative for S-100 protein, GFAP or cytokeratin. Cytoplasmic myofilaments/myofibrils with a dense Z-line-like structure were seen, the fine structures of which were complemented by PTA El stain. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a rhabdomyosarcoma, a very rare tumor in the larynx of dogs.(DOI: 10.1293/tox.24.179; J Toxicol Pathol 2011;24: 179-182)”

new compounds, N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-l-tyrosine methyl ester (1) and methyl 4-methoxy-3-(3′-hydroxy-2′-methyl)propionyloxy-benzoate (2), were isolated from EtOAc extract of the fermentation broth of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. HS-05. Their check details structures were elucidated by NMR, IR, UV, MS, and CD methods. Compounds 1 and 2 showed no anticancer activities against HL-60 cell

lines (both of IC50100M) in vitro.”
“In this investigation, we hypothesize that quality of oral anticoagulation (OA) and long-term outcome after mechanical heart valve (MHV) replacement with self-management (Self-M) of OA is superior to conventional anticoagulation treatment (Conv-T), even in outside trial conditions. One hundred sixty patients (78.8% aortic valve replacements) were trained in international normalized ratio Self-M and 260 patients (86.2% aortic valve replacements) preferred GSK2879552 manufacturer Conv-T. Mean follow-up was 8.6 +/- 2.1 years, representing 3612 patient-years. During follow-up, 37.2% bleedings and 10.6% thromboembolic events were recorded in the Self-M group versus 39.6% bleedings (P = 0.213) and 15.4% thromboembolic events (P = 0.064) in the Cony-T group. Serious adverse events were significantly lower in the Self-M group [grade III bleeding events causing disability or death: 0 versus 4.6% (P = 0.03); grade III thromboembolic events: 0.6 versus 5.0% (P = 0.011)] Patients with Self-M were significantly more satisfied with their

OA management and their quality of life (P < selleck inhibitor 0.001). Actuarial survival after 1, 5 and 10 years was 100, 99 and 97 with Self-M and 100, 95 and 81% with Cony-T, respectively (P < 0.001). Univariate risk factors for mortality were age (P = 0.008), type of operation (P = 0.021) and conventional OA (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, only conventional OA reached significance (P < 0.001). We conclude that in a routine setting under outside trial conditions Self-M of OA improves long-term outcome and treatment quality.”
“Objective. To examine the impact of depressive symptoms on asthma outcomes and medication adherence in inner-city elderly patients with asthma. Methods. Cohort study of elderly asthmatics receiving primary care at three clinics in New York City and Chicago from 1 January 2010 to 1 January 2012.

Neurological examination did not reveal

Neurological examination did not reveal AZD5582 any radicular deficit or paresis. A sympathetic reaction following the mobilisation of the sympathetic trunk during the ventral preparation of the spine was suspected and investigated further. A diagnosis

of CRPS I was proposed, and the patient was treated with analgesia, co-analgesics for pain alienation, and systemic corticosteroid therapy. A computed tomography-guided sympathetic block and lymphatic drainage were performed. Following conservative orthopaedic rehabilitation therapy, the degree of pain, allodynia, weakness, and swelling were reduced and the condition of the patient was ameliorated. The cost-benefit ratio of spinal arthroplasty is still controversial. The utility of this paper is to debate a possible cause of a painful complication, which can invalidate the results of a successful operation.”
“OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia after cardiac surgery. The pathogenesis of postoperative atrial fibrillation is multifactorial. The aim of the study was to analyse preoperative, intraoperative

and postoperative factors and their relationships with the occurrence and duration of atrial fibrillation.

METHODS: One hundred and ninety-six patients with coronary heart disease (152 men, age 62.7 +/- 10.1 years) underwent surgical revascularization. Extracorporeal circulation was used in 64 patients and minimal extracorporeal circulation was used in 75 patients. Fifty-seven SB-715992 in vitro patients underwent surgery without extracorporeal PF-00299804 solubility dmso circulation. During the first three postoperative days,

subjects were monitored for the duration and incidence of atrial fibrillation, laboratory markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, leucocytes) and serum potassium.

RESULTS: Demographic data and associated cardiovascular diseases in the groups were not statistically different. The overall incidence of atrial fibrillation was 56% (110 patients). The highest incidence of atrial fibrillation was found in the extracorporeal circulation subgroup, with a significantly lower incidence using minimal extracorporeal circulation, and in patients operated on without extracorporeal circulation (75 vs 47 vs 46%, P < 0.001). The longest duration of atrial fibrillation was found in patients operated on with extracorporeal circulation compared with minimal extracorporeal circulation, and without extracorporeal circulation (9.7 +/- 11.6 vs 4.9 +/- 8.3 vs 3.1 +/- 5.2, P < 0.001). The incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation significantly correlated with elevation of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, leucocytes) compared with patients who were free of atrial fibrillation (P < 0.001, P < 0.05). The values of serum potassium were not significantly different.

(J Cardiac Fail 2013;19:80-86)”

A prospecti

(J Cardiac Fail 2013;19:80-86)”

A prospective study was conducted to determine whether any relationship exits between skin erythema, fatigue and biological factors during and after adjuvant radiotherapy for early breast cancer.


Breast erythema was assessed objectively using reflectance spectrophotometry. Fatigue was recorded utilising the functional assessment of cancer therapy fatigue subscale. A number of potential systemic

indicators (biological factors) of the effects of radiotherapy was measured, including circulating cytokines, coagulation factors, peripheral selleck screening library blood indices and biochemistry. Measurements for erythema, fatigue and biological factors were taken at baseline and intervals during and following completion of radiotherapy.


A total of 52 eligible patients was included in the analysis. Breast erythema was shown to progressively increase during treatment, peaking on day 36 and returning to baseline by 4 months post-irradiation. Fatigue also

progressively increased during treatment, reaching a plateau between day 22 and 2 weeks post-radiotherapy. A statistically significant association was demonstrated between total breast erythema and fatigue at days 4, 8, 22 and 29 of irradiation and 2 and 6 weeks post-radiotherapy. Eltanexor Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor When only the increase in erythema attributable to radiotherapy was considered, statistically significant associations remained for day 4 of irradiation and 2 and 6 weeks post-radiotherapy. When multiple time points were considered together, an association between increased erythema and fatigue was present only post-radiotherapy. No relationship was demonstrated between the biological KU-60019 inhibitor factors and erythema or fatigue during radiotherapy.


This study demonstrates a significant and consistent relationship between radiotherapy-induced breast erythema and fatigue, particularly in the period immediately following breast irradiation.”
“Temperature-dependent modulation characteristics of 1.3

mu m InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) lasers under small signals have been carefully studied at various bias currents. Based on experimental observations, it is found that the modulation bandwidth significantly increases when excited state (ES) lasing emerges at high temperature. This is attributed to additional photons emitted by ES lasing which contribute to the modulation response. A rate equation model including two discrete electron energy levels and the level of wetting layer has been used to investigate the temperature-dependent dynamic behavior of the QD lasers. Numerical investigations confirm that the significant jump for the small signal modulation response is indeed caused by ES photons.

Rebamipide did not increase prostaglandin E2 production in the ga

Rebamipide did not increase prostaglandin E2 production in the gastric tissue; however, it induced

a 1.4-fold increase in the concentration of prostaglandin E2 in the gastric tissue as compared to vehicle-treated control mice. These results suggest that the suppressive effect of rebamipide on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced gastric mucosal injury can be attributed to reduced 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase expression, which increases the prostaglandin E2 concentration in the gastric tissue.”
“The carpal tunnel syndrome is a compressive neuropathy with high incidence rates, and its correct diagnosis, treatment and follow-up may lead to significant Sapitinib ic50 benefits in healthcare, social and economic terms. In this review, based on systematic review databases and guidelines, we summarise the appropriate indications for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up, accompanied, whenever possible, by the levels of evidence and strength of recommendations.”
“The effect of alkyl silicone

oil (ASO) as a compatibilizer on the compatibility of polypropylene (PP)/microencapsulated LDC000067 ammonium polyphosphate (MAPP) composites was investigated. The data from the mechanical tests showed that when 0.25% ASO was added, the tensile strength of the PP/MAPP/ASO composites increased approximately 41% compared with that of the PP/MAPP composite. The scanning electron microscopy results illustrate that ASO improved the interfacial ATM Kinase Inhibitor in vitro adhesion between MAPP and PP. Polarized optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction demonstrated that ASO decreased the agglomeration of MAPP and made MAPP disperse homogeneously in PP. Flow tests and IR spectroscopy

indicated that ASO played the role of lubricant in PP/MAPP, and the flow behavior of composites in the melt was that of a pseudoplastic liquid, in which MAPP interacted with ASO by molecular interaction. All of the investigations showed that a suitable amount of ASO improved the compatibility of the PP/MAPP composite. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 1176-1182, 2011″
“Previous studies have shown that activated neutrophils and their myeloperoxidase (MPO)-derived products play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)related small intestinal injury. The aim of the present study is to identify dihalogenated proteins in the small intestine on indomethacin administration. Intestinal damage was induced by subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (10 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats, and the severity of the injury was evaluated by measuring the area of visible ulcerative lesions. Tissue-associated MPO activity was measured in the intestinal mucosa as an index of neutrophil infiltration.

The overall risk of SPC was significantly increased by 14% compar

The overall risk of SPC was significantly increased by 14% compared with the general male population. With regard to specific cancer types, a significantly increased risk of SPC was found for the urinary bladder, kidney, pancreas, melanoma of skin, leukemia, myeloma, brain/nervous system, renal pelvis/ureter, thyroid, and the small intestine. The absolute risk of SPC for most cancer types, however, was below 10 cases per 10 000 person-years. A significantly decreased Nec-1s datasheet risk of SPC was found in the lung/bronchus and the liver. Although detection bias cannot be excluded as a contributing factor for our results, we recommend continuing follow-up care of prostate cancer patients

particularly with respect to SPC of the urinary system as a precaution. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 21: 552-559 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“BACKGROUND: An alkaline mineral medium (pH approximate to 10) was used in a previous study to enhance the absorption Momelotinib molecular weight rate of hydrogen sulfide in a biofiltration process where an alkaliphilic sulfo-oxidizing bacterial consortium was deployed. In this work the same mineral media and bacterial consortium were used to assess a biotrickling filter performance during the treatment of low gaseous concentrations of carbon disulfide and ethanethiol.

RESULTS: The alkalinity of the mineral medium

increased the solubility of carbon disulfide and ethanethiol by around 50% and 80%, respectively. The oxidation activity of the microorganisms resulted in a lower value compared

to other reported results. The maximum elimination capacities reached using alkaline biotrickling filtration were between 2.3 and 3.5 g m(-3) h(-1) with removal efficiencies around 50%. A conceptual model for biotrickling filtration of ethanethiol was developed and validated using experimental data under dynamic conditions.

CONCLUSION: Alkaline conditions enhance the absorption buy I-BET-762 rates of sulfur compounds in a biotrickling filter, but the elimination capacity of the system was limited by the low oxidation activities of the alkaliphilic microorganisms. It is necessary to continue exploring the biodiversity in order to find a microorganism adapted to the consumption of volatile sulfur compounds. (C) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry”
“We studied the effect of allelic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and uridine-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) on the risk of development of head and neck cancers and overall survival. One hundred and forty-two head and neck cancer patients (48 with laryngeal, 42 with hypopharyngeal and 52 with mesopharyngeal tumours) were included in the study. The control group (150 individuals) included volunteers without malignant tumours. There was no statistically significant difference in age, sex distribution, or smoking habits between the two groups.