The current study adds to the growing body of evidence pointing t

The current study adds to the growing body of evidence pointing to the association between serum cholesterol and mental health. Considering that attentional impulsivity is a demonstrated risk factor for suicide, patients presenting with low cholesterol and mood symptoms may warrant increased clinical attention and surveillance. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Internal tandem duplication (ITD) of the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene is a gain-of-function

mutation common in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). It is associated with inferior prognosis and response to chemotherapy. Single base mutations at the FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) also leads to a gain of function, although its prognostic significance is less AZD5363 well defined because of its rarity. The clinical benefits of FLT3 inhibition are generally limited to AML with FLT3-ITD. However, responses are transient and leukaemia progression invariably occurs. There is compelling evidence that leukaemia clones carrying both ITD and TKD mutations appear selleck chemicals when resistance to FLT3 inhibitors occurs. Interestingly, the emergence of double ITD and TKD mutants can be recapitulated

in vitro when FLT3-ITD+ leukaemia cell lines are treated with mutagens and FLT3 inhibitors. Furthermore, murine xenotransplantation models also suggest that, in some cases, the FTL3-ITD and TKD double mutants actually exist in minute amounts before treatment with FLT3 inhibitors, expand under the selection pressure of FLT3 inhibition and become the predominant resistant clone(s) during the drug-refractory phase. On the basis of this model of clonal evolution, a multipronged strategy using more potent FLT3 inhibitors, and a combinatorial approach targeting both FLT3-dependent and FLT3-independent Stattic in vitro pathways, will be needed to improve outcome. Leukemia (2013) 27, 260-268; doi:10.1038/leu.2012.195″

work shows a relationship between measures of morning or evening preference (e.g., morningness-veningness questionnaire (MEQ) scores) and melatonin and sleep timing, body mass index (BMI) and mood. This study explores the relationship of these factors to atypical depression (ATD) symptoms, particularly increased appetite and hypersomnia, in depressed and non-depressed peri and post-menopausal women. Participants were 19 normal control subjects and 10 depressed patients, 46-72 years of age. In a university hospital setting, we administered the MEQ and Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Seasonal Affective Disorders (SIGH-SAD version), which includes a measure of ATD, 3-5 weeks before obtaining nighttime polysomnography and overnight plasma melatonin in dim light (<30 lx).

We have coupled GPF and the

gene finding

We have coupled GPF and the

gene finding Tariquidar in vitro program AUGUSTUS in a way that provides automatic structural annotations of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome, using highly unbiased GPF evidence. A comparison of the AUGUSTUS gene set incorporating GPF evidence to the standard JGI FM4 (Filtered Models 4) gene set reveals 932 GPF peptides that are not contained in the Filtered Models 4 gene set. Furthermore, the GPF evidence improved the AUGUSTUS gene models by altering 65 gene models and adding three previously unidentified genes.”
“Niche theory and neutral theory are two major developments aiming at explaining patterns of biodiversity observed in nature. Both theories have been found relevant either separately or simultaneously in some real communities, and it has been theoretically demonstrated that they can produce similar species abundance distributions. However, it remains controversial whether the two theories can produce similar patterns via different mechanisms, or can interact to jointly produce the observed diversity patterns, or whether the patterns generated by the neutral model are robust to niche structure. Here we show that, although the neutral model proposed for spatially discrete communities remains robust to strong niche structure for high-diversity communities, the inclusion of more realistic niche differentiation modes greatly improves

the goodness of fit to Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Actually, the multiple discrete communities’ neutral model, due to its underestimation

check details of the number or abundance of common species, fails to capture the combination learn more of many rare species and a few highly abundant species that characterize the Indo-Pacific coral reef communities. By incorporating niche structure into the multiple discrete communities’ model, the hybrid niche-neutral models can successfully reproduce both the species-based and individual-based abundance distribution patterns observed in the coral reefs. We proposed that both niche theory and neutral theory may be involved in explaining the structure of such communities. Our results also suggest a negative relationship between per capita birth to death ratio and immigration among different guilds of coral species, which clearly deserves further investigation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The components that enable cells and organisms to fulfill a plethora of chemical and physical reactions, including their ability to metabolize, replicate, repair and communicate with their environment are mostly based on the functioning of highly complex cellular machines which are to a large extent composed of proteins. With the development of MS techniques compatible with the analysis of minute amounts of biological material, it has become more and more feasible to dissect the composition and modification of these protein machineries.

(C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Pr

(C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Previously we observed inpatients suffering from a metastatic carcinoid tumor that irritability, aggression and lack of impulse control are associated with Low levels of plasma tryptophan and presumably with low brain serotonin function. In rats we showed that a diet of low tryptophan resulted in higher stress responses and higher corticosterone production. Here we tested in carcinoid patients Selisistat whether

tryptophan depletion due to tumor 5-HT overproduction is associated with high cortisol production.

Methods: Urinary excretion of cortisol, serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (the main metabolite of serotonin a marker of tumor activity), plasma levels of tryptophan and platelet

content of serotonin (index of peripheral serotonin synthesis) were determined in metastatic midgut carcinoid patients. Patients (N = 25) were divided into two groups based on their plasma tryptophan levels (<= 25 mu mol/l, n = 12 and >= 49 mu mol/l, n = 13).

Results: Carcinoid patients with low plasma tryptophan levels had significantly higher urinary excretion of free cortisol (p < 0.01), independent of tumor activity. The inter-individual differences in the Low tryptophan group, however, were substantial.

Conclusions: In a subgroup of the patients suffering from metastatic carcinoid disease the cerebral access of plasma tryptophan is impaired, thus rendering cerebral serotonin neurotransmission suboptimal and leading to hypercortisolism. The present study provides further support to the idea learn more that low serotonergic function is a risk for developing stress-associated psychopathology. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”


has tumoricidal and immunomodulatory activity against multiple myeloma. This double-blind, multicenter, randomized study compared melphalan-prednisone-lenalidomide induction followed by lenalidomide maintenance (MPR-R) with melphalan-prednisone-lenalidomide (MPR) or melphalan-prednisone (MP) followed by placebo in patients 65 years of age or older with newly diagnosed selleckchem multiple myeloma.


We randomly assigned patients who were ineligible for transplantation to receive MPR-R (nine 4-week cycles of MPR followed by lenalidomide maintenance therapy until a relapse or disease progression occurred [152 patients]) or to receive MPR (153 patients) or MP (154 patients) without maintenance therapy. The primary end point was progression-free survival.


The median follow-up period was 30 months. The median progression-free survival was significantly longer with MPR-R (31 months) than with MPR (14 months; hazard ratio, 0.49; P<0.001) or MP (13 months; hazard ratio, 0.40; P<0.001). Response rates were superior with MPR-R and MPR (77% and 68%, respectively, vs. 50% with MP; P<0.001 and P=0.002, respectively, for the comparison with MP).

Inhibiting pathway activity in Hh-responsive target cells reduced

Inhibiting pathway activity in Hh-responsive target cells reduced fibrogenesis, angiogenesis, and growth. In conclusion, HBV/HCV infection increases hepatocyte production of Hh ligands and expands the types of Hh-responsive cells that promote liver fibrosis and cancer. Laboratory Investigation (2010) 90, 1690-1703; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2010.147; published online 9 August 2010″
“Hippocampal (HC) atrophy and atrophy rates are putative clinical markers of progression to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We compared results given by two different automated HC segmentation techniques in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

dataset between two time intervals. We used HC volumetric automated segmentation data for a total of 683 patients at baseline (198 controls, 331 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 154 with AD), 684 at 6 months (198 controls, PRT062607 datasheet 332 with MCI and 154 with AD) and 587 at 12 months (176 controls, 280 with MCI and 131 with AD). Segmentation techniques included FreeSurfer and SNT. We calculated HC monthly atrophy rates between baseline and 6 months and between 6 and 12 months, and used a multiple-way ANOVA for repeated measures. Mean HC volumes decrease with time.

The only significant (p < 0.05) main effect was diagnosis. We measured strong interaction between technique and scan interval and weak interaction between diagnoses and scan interval. When compared to mean rates from largely manual segmentation, automated segmentation results show BIBW2992 datasheet increased atrophy rates for both SNT and FreeSurfer techniques. While sensitive, there remains substantial

technique variability, likely due to differences in methodological approaches and especially neuroanatomical HC definitions. These fundamental metrological problems need to be resolved before concluding with certainty on the accuracy and reliability of automated techniques. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), depletion of hepatic antioxidants may contribute to the progression of steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by increasing oxidative stress that produces lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and fibrosis. We investigated whether depletion of glutathione Bcl-w (GSH) increases NASH-associated hepatic pathology in mice fed a diet deficient in methionine and choline (MCD diet). Wild-type (wt) mice and genetically GSH-deficient mice lacking the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm null mice), the rate-limiting enzyme for de novo synthesis of GSH, were fed the MCD diet, a methionine/choline-sufficient diet, or standard chow for 21 days. We assessed NASH-associated hepatic pathology, including steatosis, fibrosis, inflammation, and hepatocyte ballooning, and used the NAFLD Scoring System to evaluate the extent of changes.

In donor heart samples the bis-phosphorylated species of cTnI pre

In donor heart samples the bis-phosphorylated species of cTnI predominated and no more highly phosphorylated species were not detectable (0P was 10.3 +/- 1.9%, 1P, 17.5 +/- 3.5%, 2P, 72.2 +/- 4.7%, 11 samples). Total phosphorylation was 1.62 +/- 0.06 molsPi/mol TnI. In myofibrils from end-stage failing hearts, the unphosphorylated cTnI species predominated (0P was 78.5 +/- 1.8%, 1P, 17.5 +/- 1.9%, 2P, 4.0 +/- 0.7%, total phosphorylation 0.26 +/- 0.02 molsPi/mol TnI, five samples). Muscle from patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy was also largely unphosphorylated (0P was 76.6 +/- 3.1%, 1P, 17.5 +/- 2.7%, 2P, 5.9 +/- 0.8%, total

phosphorylation 0.29 +/- 0.04 molsPi/mol TnI, 19 samples). Using a range

of phospho-specific antibodies we demonstrated that 3/4 of the bis-phosphorylated band of donor heart cTnI PLX-4720 in vitro is phosphorylated at Ser22 and Ser23 in approximately equal amounts and that phosphorylation of Ser43 and Thr142 was not detected.”
“Objective: Creating an experimental model of a type B aortic dissection with a minimally invasive endovascular procedure in swine to help future evaluation of therapies for aortic dissection.

Methods: Aortic dissection was created in 14 swine using endovascular procedures only. Under fluoroscopy, a modified 10F outer catheter with a 14 G stiffening inner metallic cannula was forced via the femoral artery into the aortic vessel wall to create an initial dissection. A .035-inch guidewire and a 4F straight catheter were advanced into the dissected space, and the dissection was extended in a retrograde direction using a technique GDC 973 including loop formation no of the guidewire, which was placed carefully against the transmural penetration and extended as far as possible in the descending thoracic aorta up to the point where loop formation of the guidewire reached smoothly. An 8F introducer sheath was

advanced with a Brockenbrough needle into the dissected space, and a proximal fenestration was created by puncturing the intima. If required, balloon dilatation was performed to enlarge the proximal and distal tears. Aortography and contrast-enhanced cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) were performed in addition to a detailed histologic evaluation of the dissected portion.

Results: Aortic dissection was successfully created in 11 of the 14 swine (78.6%). Among the 11 dissections, nine were located in the thoracoabdominal aorta and two in the abdominal aorta. The initial aortic diameter at the middle portion of the created dissection ranged from 7.4 to 16.8 mm (mean +/- standard deviation, 10.9 +/- 2.9), while after dissection, it ranged from 7.8 to 19.3 mm (12.9 +/- 3.8 mm). The dissected length ranged from 4.4 to 17.7 cm (10.7 +/- 4.6 cm). Aortography and CBCT revealed seven dissections (63.6%) with a smooth and patent false lumen. Histologic evaluation revealed that the outer one-third of the media was separated from the inner two-thirds.

‘ These effects suggest alterations in reward-modulatory brain sy

‘ These effects suggest alterations in reward-modulatory brain systems. We explored the effects of 10 days of sleep deprivation in rats on the expression of striatal opioid peptide (OP) genes that subserve food motivation

and hedonic reward, and compared effects with those seen in hypothalamic energy balance-regulatory systems. Sleep-deprived (Sleep-Dep) rats were compared with yoked forced-locomotion apparatus controls (App-Controls), food-restricted rats (Food-Restrict), and unmanipulated CBL0137 controls (Home-Cage). Detection of mRNA levels with in situ hybridization revealed a subregion-specific upregulation of striatal preproenkephalin and prodynorhin gene expression in the Sleep-Dep group relative to all other groups. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and throughout neocortex was also robustly upregulated selectively in the Sleep-Dep group. In contrast, parallel gene expression changes were observed in the Sleep-Dep and Food-Restrict groups in hypothalamic energy-sensing systems (arcuate nucleus NPY was upregulated, and cocaine- SHP099 supplier and amphetamine-regulated transcript was downregulated), in alignment with leptin suppression in both groups. Together, these results reveal a novel set of sleep deprivation-induced transcriptional changes in reward-modulatory peptide systems, which are dissociable from the energy-balance

perturbations of sleep loss or the potentially stressful effects of the GSK621 mouse forced-locomotion procedure. The recruitment of telencephalic food-reward systems may provide a feeding drive highly resistant to feedback control, which could engender obesity through the enhancement

of palatable feeding.”
“The syncytium formed by Utricularia is extremely unusual and perhaps unique among angiosperm syncytia. All typical plant syncytia (articulated laticifers, amoeboid tapetum, the nucellar plasmodium of river weeds) are formed only by fusion of sporophytic cells which possess the same genetic material, unlike Utricularia in which the syncytium possesses nuclei from two different sources: cells of maternal sporophytic nutritive tissue and endosperm haustorium (both maternal and paternal genetic material). How is this kind of syncytium formed and organized and is it similar to other plant syncytial structures? We used light and electron microscopy to reconstruct the step-by-step development of the Utricularia syncytia. The syncytia of Utricularia developed through heterotypic cell fusion involving the digestion of the cell wall, and finally, heterokaryotic multinucleate structures were formed, which possessed different-sized nuclei that were not regularly arranged in the cytoplasm. We showed that these syncytia were characterized by hypertrophy of nuclei, abundant endoplasmic reticulum and organelles, and the occurrence of wall ingrowths.

Conclusions: Infected aneurysm of the suprarenal


Conclusions: Infected aneurysm of the suprarenal

abdominal aorta was rare. Nontyphoid Salmonella was the most common responsible microorganism. Open in situ graft repair remained a preferred and durable treatment strategy. (J Vase Surg 2011;54:972-8.)”
“The phytohormones gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) play essential and often antagonistic roles in regulating plant growth, selleckchem development, and stress responses. Using a proteomics-based approach, we examined the role of GA and ABA in the modulation of protein expression levels during seed germination. Rice seeds were treated with GA (200 mu M), ABA (10 mu M), ABA followed by GA, GA followed by ABA, and water as a control and then incubated for 3 days. The embryo was dissected from germinated seeds, and proteins were subjected to 2-DE. Approximately, 665 total protein spots were resolved in the 2-D gels. Among them, 16 proteins notably modulated by either GA or ABA were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Northern analyses demonstrated that expression patterns of 13 of these 16 genes were

consistent with those of the proteome analysis. Further examination of two proteins, rice isoflavone resuctase (OsIFR) and rice PR10 (OsPR10), using Western blot and immunolocalization, revealed that both are specifically expressed in the embryo but not in the endosperm and are dramatically downregulated by ABA.”
“BACKGROUND: One hundred ninety-three patients with sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannoma given conservative management were enrolled in a prospective study.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of conservative management LY294002 cost and to determine the effect of an initial conservative management on the quality of life (QOL) and severity of audio vestibular symptoms.

METHODS: The patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans, clinical examination, and QOL assessment by 2 validated questionnaires, the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and Glasgow Benefit Inventory WZB117 order (GBI). Using regression analysis of clustered data, we analyzed

possible associations between tumor growth and symptoms and tested whether our earlier finding that vertigo is associated with reduced QOL could be verified.

RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 43 months (range, 9-115 months; SD, 21.48 months). Results are based on 703 clinical controls and 642 (SF-36) and 638 (GBI) questionnaires. Seven patients were lost to follow-up. Approximately 40% of patients were in need of treatment during follow-up. We found a statistically significant association between tinnitus and vertigo and tumor growth. Vertigo was found to significantly reduce QOL. There was a significant drop in the Social Function subscales of both SF-36 and GBI, possibly attributable to progressive hearing loss. Otherwise, there was no overall trend toward any change in QOL during the observation period. In addition, QOL seemed to be little affected by treatment.

The present results suggest that specific attentional capacities

The present results suggest that specific attentional capacities or strategies that appear to characterize disorders such as OCD, are related to disorder-associated

traits in healthy populations as well. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Improved winter cold tolerance is widespread among small passerines resident in cold climates and is generally associated with elevated summit metabolic rate (M(sum)=maximum thermoregulatory selleck kinase inhibitor metabolic rate) and improved shivering endurance with increased reliance on lipids as fuel. Elevated M(sum) and improved cold tolerance may result from greater metabolic intensity, due to mass-specific increase in oxidative enzyme capacity, or increase in the masses of thermogenic tissues. To examine the mechanisms underlying winter increases in M(sum), we investigated seasonal changes in mass-specific and total activities of the key aerobic enzymes citrate synthase (CS) and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA-dehydrogenase (HOAD) in pectoralis, supracoracoideus and mixed leg muscles of three resident passerine species, black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus), house sparrow

(Passer domesticus), and white-breasted nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis). Activities of CS were generally higher in winter than in summer muscles for chickadees and house sparrows, but not nuthatches. Mass-specific HOAD activity was significantly elevated in winter relative Selleck R406 to summer in all muscles for chickadees, but did not vary significantly with season for sparrows or nuthatches, except for sparrow leg muscle. These results suggest that modulation of substrate flux and cellular aerobic capacity in muscle contribute to seasonal metabolic flexibility in some species and tissues, but such changes play varying roles among small passerines resident in cold climates. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Defects in p53 function, which occur frequently in human Prexasertib price cancers due to mutations in TP53 or disruptions in the p53 regulatory pathway, render cells dependent on CHK1 (Checkpoint Kinase 1) to activate cell cycle checkpoints. In the presence of DNA damage or replication stress, inhibition of CHK1 leads to “”mitotic catastrophe”"

and cell death in p53-deficient tumors while sparing p53-proficient cells. CHK1 inhibitors sensitize tumors to a variety of DNA-damaging agents or antimetabolites in preclinical models and are being evaluated in early phase clinical trials. In this review, we summarize recent advances and controversies in the development and application of CHK1 inhibitors as cancer therapeutics.”
“In animal models, serotonin (5-HT) activity contributes to stress-induced changes in behavior. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) exhibit a stress-induced change in behavior in which social defeat results in increased submissive and defensive behavior and a complete loss of normal territorial aggression directed toward a novel, non-aggressive opponent.

influenzae type b and N. meningitidis serogroup C. Nevertheless,

influenzae type b and N. meningitidis serogroup C. Nevertheless, the case fatality rate has remained unchanged and thus the disease is still a serious threat to childhood health. Further prevention SC79 datasheet by novel vaccines and improved management of childhood meningitis is an exciting challenge.”
“Background: The TBscore, based on simple signs and symptoms, was introduced to predict unsuccessful outcome in tuberculosis patients on treatment. A recent inter-observer variation study showed profound variation in some variables. Further, some variables depend on a physician assessing them, making the score less applicable.

The aim of the present study was to simplify the TBscore. Methods: Inter-observer variation assessment and exploratory factor analysis were combined to develop a simplified score, the TBscore II. To validate TBscore II we assessed the association between start score and failure (i.e. death or treatment failure), responsiveness using Cohen’s effect size, and the relationship between severity class at treatment start and a decrease < 25% in score from the start until the end of the second treatment month and subsequent mortality. Results: We analyzed data from 1070 Guinean (2003-2012) and 432 Ethiopian (2007-2012) pulmonary tuberculosis patients. For the refined score, items

with less than substantial agreement (kappa <= 0.6) and/or not associated with the underlying constructs were excluded. Items kept were: cough, dyspnea, chest pain, anemia, body mass index (BMI) < 18 kg/m(2), BMI < 16 kg/m(2), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) < 220 mm, and MUAC < 200 mm. The effect sizes for the change

Omipalisib chemical structure between the start of treatment and the 2-month follow-up were 0.51 in Guinea-Bissau and 0.68 in Ethiopia, and for the change between the start of treatment and the end of treatment were 0.68 in Guinea-Bissau and 0.74 in Ethiopia. Tariquidar mouse Severity class placement at treatment start predicted failure (p < 0.001 Guinea-Bissau, p = 0.208 Ethiopia). Inability to decrease at least 25% in score was associated with a higher failure rate during the remaining 4 months of treatment (p = 0.063 Guinea-Bissau, p = 0.008 Ethiopia). Conclusion: The TBscore II could be a useful monitoring tool, aiding triage at the beginning of treatment and during treatment.”
“Background: The treatment of recurrent furunculosis is poorly documented and represents a public health challenge. The medical care of this disease is often disappointing, especially as the disease evolution is uncertain and relapses occur. We report the efficacy and safety of our CMC regimen: skin disinfection (chlorhexidine), local nasal antibiotic (mupirocin), and systemic antibiotic (clindamycin). Methods: Patients attending our institution during the period 2006-2012 for recurrent furunculosis (>= 4 episodes/y) were enrolled in the study. Clinical and bacteriological data were collected.

Perceptions of travel distance and straight-line distance seem to

Perceptions of travel distance and straight-line distance seem to be based on different information kinds and to refer to different animal-environment relations. In identifying neural mechanisms supportive of navigation,

straight-line distance versus travelled distance may prove to be a productive distinction. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To determine the role of untranslated regions (UTRs) in replication and pathogenesis of Newcastle disease BAY 63-2521 molecular weight virus (NDV), we generated recombinant viruses with deletions in 5′ and 3′ UTRs of the HN mRNA. Deletion of any HN UTR did not noticeably affect in vitro replication of these viruses. However, complete deletion of the 5′ UTR of the HN gene decreased the HN mRNA levels and HN protein contents in virus particles, resulting in attenuation of the virus in chickens. This indicates that the 5′ UTR of HN mRNA plays an important role in replication and pathogenicity of NDV in vivo.”

ligand binding in blood cells was assessed in borderline personality disorder (BDP) patients, testing see more the possibility that different biochemical endophenotypes might lie beneath a specific clinical presentation. The density of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) and serotonin transporters were assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and platelets, respectively, showing a decrease of both parameters. Moreover, a further significant decrease of PBR in PBMC was shown for those patients with a depressive trait. Further confirmation of the presence of different molecular endophenotypes underlying the dissimilar clinical presentations in BPD may advance our possibility of successfully treating these patients. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Mutant influenza virus that lacks the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail domains of M2 (M2 knockout [M2KO]) is attenuated in both cell culture and mice. Here, we examined

the potency of M2KO influenza virus as a live attenuated influenza C646 vaccine. M2KO virus grew as efficiently as the wild-type virus in cells stably expressing the wild-type M2, indicating the feasibility of efficient vaccine production. Mice intranasally vaccinated with M2KO virus developed protective immune responses and survived a lethal challenge with the wild-type virus, suggesting that the M2KO virus has potential as a live attenuated vaccine.”
“Hippocampal atrophy is the key marker in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is associated with white matter (WM) disruption. This type of WM disruption could partly explain AD-related pathology. However, relatively little attention has been directed toward WM disruption which may be independent of these fundamental gray matter (GM) changes in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) which is associated with high risk of AD.