03). In conclusion, the miR-31 overexpression may be involved in

03). In conclusion, the miR-31 overexpression may be involved in the

development and progression of CRC. The miR-143 and miR-145 may play a certain role in the development of colon and/or rectal cancers but not in progression of the disease.”
“Purpose of review

High prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity, hepatitis B and C, in minority groups, results in racial minorities being disproportionally represented on transplant waiting lists. Organ transplantation positively impacts patient survival www.selleckchem.com/products/Belinostat.html but greater access is limited by a severe donor shortage.

Recent findings

Unfortunately, minority groups also suffer from disparities in deceased and living donation. African-Americans comprise 12.9% of the population and 34% of the kidney transplant waiting selleck chemical list but only 13.8% of deceased donors. Barriers to minority deceased donation include: decreased awareness of transplantation, religious or cultural distrust of the medical community, fear of medical abandonment and fear of racism.

Furthermore, African-Americans comprise only 11.8% of living donors. Barriers to minority living donation include: unwillingness to donate, medical comorbid conditions, trust or fear of medical community, loss to follow-up, poor coping mechanisms, financial concerns, reluctance to ask family members and friends, fear of surgery, and lack of awareness about living donor kidney transplantation.


Transplant center-based education classes significantly and positively impact African-American find more concerns and beliefs surrounding living donation. Community and national strategies utilizing culturally sensitive communication and interventions can ameliorate disparities and improve access to transplantation.”
“Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be an important public health problem in developed countries especially in deprived socioeconomic groups, older people, immunocompromised patients, drug-therapy resistant cases and the immigrant population. The spine is the most frequent location of musculoskeletal TB. The wide range of clinical presentations results in difficulties and delays in diagnosis. Advanced disease mimics other

infections and malignancy. The diagnosis of spinal infections relies on three main factors: clinical symptoms, imaging and bacteriological culture. Advanced imaging such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) and Fluor18-Deoxiglucose Positron Emission Tomography combined with CT (F-18 FDG PET-CT) demonstrate lesion extent, serve as guide for biopsy with aspiration for culture, assist surgery planning and contribute to follow-up. Diagnosis of TB cannot be established solely on the basis of clinical tests or imaging findings and biopsy may be required. Differential diagnosis between tuberculous and pyogenic spondylitis is of clinical importance, but may be difficult on the basis of radiological findings alone.

Single-group repeated measures design.

Four continuing

Single-group repeated measures design.

Four continuing care retirement communities in Maryland and in Virginia.

Convenience sample of 107 community-dwelling men and women (71.9%) aged 62 years

or older with current LBP.

All participants completed modified Oswestry Disability (mOSW) and Quebec Back Pain Disability (QUE) questionnaires, as well as the Medical Outcomes Survey Short-Form 36 questionnaire at baseline. At follow-up, 56 participants completed the mOSW and the QUE for reliability assessment.

Test-retest reliability of the mOSW and QUE were excellent with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86, 0.95) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.90, 0.97), respectively. Participants with high pain severity U0126 ic50 and high levels of functional Ferrostatin-1 purchase limitation had higher scores on the mOSW (P < 0.0001) and QUE (P < 0.001) scales than other participants, which represents good construct validity for both scales. The threshold for minimum detectable change is 10.66 points for the mOSW and 11.04 points for the QUE. Both questionnaires had sufficient scale width to accurately measure

changes in patient status.

It appears that both questionnaires have excellent test-retest reliability and good construct validity when used to evaluate LBP-related disability for older adults with varying degrees of LBP. Neither questionnaire appears to have superior psychometric properties; therefore, both the Oswestry and Quebec can be recommended for use among geriatric patients with LBP.”
“Despite advances in diagnosis, prevention, and management, venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality. For decades,

Milciclib mw antithrombotic therapy for prevention and treatment of VTE was limited to parenteral agents related to heparin and oral vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Both classes of anticoagulants are effective, but have limitations, including considerable variability in dose-response, narrow therapeutic margins between the risks of thrombosis and bleeding, and the need to monitor anticoagulation intensity. Over the past decade, the introduction of new oral anticoagulants that specifically inhibit coagulation factors IIa (thrombin) or Xa has changed practice in a variety of clinical situations, including VTE prophylaxis and treatment. In this Review, we outline the use of the novel oral anticoagulants apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban in the prevention and treatment of VTE, and discuss practical considerations for choosing the appropriate drug for each patient. Although the introduction of novel anticoagulant drugs is promising, selecting the optimum strategy for an individual patient requires an understanding of the specific circumstances associated with thrombus formation and the pharmacological properties of each agent.

“Background and Purpose: In the era of rigid ureteroscopy

“Background and Purpose: In the era of rigid ureteroscopy (URS) for ureteral stones, asymptomatic renal stones were often left in place. With the advent of flexible URS, however, the treatment of such renal stones became an attractive option. Data are scarce regarding the impact of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) performed at the time of URS for a symptomatic ureteral stone in comparison with ureteral stone removal alone. The purpose of the study was to

compare the outcomes of URS combined with RIRS with find more URS alone.

Patients and Methods: A comparison between patients who underwent URS and RIRS (group A, n = 47) and a matched control group of patients undergoing URS alone (group B, n = 47) was performed. Matching was based on ureteral stone size and location, and preprocedural Double-J stent placement.

Results: The median size of the largest GSK 4529 ureteral stone in both groups was 8 mm with a mean total stone burden of 52.9 mm(2) (28.9) and 47 mm(2) (21.1) in groups A and B, respectively. Median renal stone size was 9 mm with a mean total stone burden of 84.1 mm(2) (40.3). Mean surgery time in groups A and B was 68 minutes (19.61) and 39 minutes (15.96), respectively (P<0.001). Median hospital stay was 1 day for both groups.

The success rate for ureteral stone removal was 98% and 100% in groups A and B, respectively. Success rate for RIRS was 85% (40/47 cases). Hospitalization length and complications, mainly postoperative fever, did not differ significantly between the groups.

Conclusions: Managing asymptomatic renal stones at the time of URS for symptomatic ureteral stones significantly prolongs surgery duration but does not lengthen hospital stay, increase complications, or lower success rates. This combined approach reduces the need for future procedures and is probably more cost effective.”
“Purpose of review

This review summarizes recent advances in the field

of diabetes and rheumatic disease. These conditions exert a significant healthcare burden MDV3100 order on our society and much remains to be learned regarding their pathophysiology and treatment.

Recent findings

We summarize new insights into diabetes and its association with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, osteoporosis, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, crystalline arthropathy, neuropathic arthropathy, and tendinopathy. Diabetes has major effects on connective tissues, which have significant impact on both the development and outcome of these diseases of cartilage, bone, ligament, and tendon. An improved understanding of the mechanisms through which diabetes alters connective tissue metabolism should lead to better preventive and therapeutic interventions.

Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysi

Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis; concurrent validity was explored by correlations with comparator scales.

The items of the German heiQ (TM) were well understood by rehabilitation inpatients. The structure of the eight find more heiQ (TM) scales was replicated after minor adjustment. heiQ (TM) scales had higher correlations with comparator scales with similar constructs, particularly mental health concepts than with physical health. Moreover, all heiQ (TM) scales

differentiated between individuals across different levels of depression.

The German heiQ (TM) is comprehensible for German-speaking patients suffering from different types of chronic conditions; it assesses relevant outcomes of self-management programs in a reliable

and valid manner. Further studies involving its practical application are warranted.”
“PURPOSE: To compare wavefront aberration, depth of focus, contrast sensitivity, and in vivo modulation transfer function (MTF) after fellow-eye implantation of aspheric and spherical intraocular lenses (IOLs).

SETTINGS: Department of Ophthalmology, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled study comprised patients with bilateral cataract BAY 1895344 manufacturer who received an aspheric AcrySof SN60WF IOL or a spherical AcrySof SN60AT IOL in the first eye and the other IOL in the second eye. Assessments at 3 and 6 months included 100% and 9% logMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and photopic and mesopic functional Autophagy phosphorylation acuity contrast testing. Total internal and corneal aberrations and depth of focus were computed. Distance-corrected near logMAR acuity was available at 12 months.

RESULTS: At 3 and 6 months, there was no significant difference in 100% and 9% BCVA or photopic contrast sensitivity. Mesopic contrast sensitivity was better and total and internal spherical aberrations were significantly less with the aspheric IOL. Total and internal eye vertical coma was reduced with aspheric IOL. Total MTF was not significantly different

between groups. The aspheric IOL group had 0.46 diopter less depth of focus than the spherical IOL group at 6 months (P<.05). Distance-corrected near acuity was significantly better with the spherical IOL.

CONCLUSIONS: Aspheric IOLs significantly reduced spherical aberration, improving mesopic contrast sensitivity. Vertical coma was reduced with aspheric IOLs. Reduction of aberrations may be responsible for reduced depth of focus with aspheric IOLs. This may be disadvantageous for near vision and reading ability.”
“The aim of this investigation was to study the influence of genetic polymorphisms of biotransformation enzymes and dopamine receptors on neurobehavioral effects in referents (n = 53), solvent-workers (n = 144), and chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) patients (n = 33).

We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected

We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data in MO women undergoing BS between 2006 and 2010. Anthropometric, metabolic comorbidities, and inflammatory markers were compared at baseline and 12 months after BS, between 52 women (10.4 %) presenting with a HOMA-IR < 2.94 (80th percentile reference population) (IS-MO group) and an age- and BMI-matched group of women (n = 52) with HOMA-IR > 2.94.

The IS-MO women presented a more favorable metabolic and inflammatory profile as compared to the IR-MO group. However,

an enlarged waist circumference (WC), a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) > 3 mg/dL, and metabolic syndrome (MS) were present in 100 %, 90 %, selleckchem and 51.9 % of the IS-MO group at baseline. At 12 months after surgery, all the MS components and hs-CRP improved in IS-MO subjects (p < 0.01). The prevalence of the MS in the IS-MO group significantly decreased (11 %, p < 0.05) despite WC and hs-CRP being abnormal respectively in 53.3 % and 20.0 % of women in this group.

In MO women, an IS in the normal range is associated with a limited protection from metabolic co-morbidities. Nonetheless, BS results in the amelioration of the altered metabolic and inflammatory profiles YM155 inhibitor also in this group of subjects.”
“Background: Cardiovascular

magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping indices, such as T1 time and partition coefficient (lambda), have shown potential to assess diffuse myocardial fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate how scanner and field strength variation affect the accuracy and precision/reproducibility

of T1 mapping indices.

Methods: CMR studies were performed on two 1.5T and three 3T scanners. Eight phantoms were made to mimic the T1/T2 of pre- and post-contrast myocardium and blood at 1.5T and 3T. T1 mapping using MOLLI was performed with simulated heart rate of 40-100 bpm. Inversion recovery spin echo (IR-SE) was the reference standard for T1 determination. Accuracy was defined as the percent error between MOLLI and IR-SE, and scan/re-scan reproducibility was defined as the relative percent mean difference between repeat MOLLI scans. Partition coefficient was estimated by Delta R1myocardium phantom/Delta GSK126 chemical structure R1blood phantom. Generalized linear mixed model was used to compare the accuracy and precision/reproducibility of T1 and lambda across field strength, scanners, and protocols.

Results: Field strength significantly affected MOLLI T1 accuracy (6.3% error for 1.5T vs. 10.8% error for 3T, p<0.001) but not lambda accuracy (8.8% error for 1.5T vs. 8.0% error for 3T, p=0.11). Partition coefficients of MOLLI were not different between two 1.5T scanners (47.2% vs. 47.9%, p=0.13), and showed only slight variation across three 3T scanners (49.2% vs. 49.8% vs. 49.9%, p=0.016). Partition coefficient also had significantly lower percent error for precision (better scan/re-scan reproducibility) than measurement of individual T1 values (3.

Conclusion. These findings demonstrate that the antifibrinolytics

Conclusion. These findings demonstrate that the antifibrinolytics have drastically different effects on osteoblasts due in part to different efficacies of protease inhibition. Further, this work suggests that the fibrinolytic proteases and their inhibitors

have great potential to regulate bone by affecting the processes that control osteoblast growth and differentiation.”
“Background: Adolescents are more likely than adults to consume energy-dense, micronutrient-poor diets and to experience adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Objectives: The objectives were to assess micronutrient intake and blood biomarkers prospectively in pregnant see more adolescents recruited to the About Teenage Eating (ATE) Study and to determine associations with pregnancy outcome.

Design: Pregnant adolescents (n =

500) were recruited from 2 UK inner city populations. Dietary intake was assessed with three 24-h dietary recalls, and micronutrient status was assessed by measurement of third trimester blood biomarkers. Pregnancy outcomes included small-for-gestational age (SGA) birth and preterm delivery.

Results: Median iron and folate intakes were lower than UK and US recommended amounts. Folate and vitamin B-12 status were lower in smokers, despite no differences in dietary intake. Serum folate was,7.0 nmol/L in 12% of subjects, and serum total homocysteine (tHcy) was elevated (>10 mu mol/L) in 20% of subjects. Fifty-two Prexasertib ZIETDFMK percent of the subjects had iron deficiency anemia, and 30% had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations

<25 nmol/L. The incidence of SGA birth was higher in subjects with poorer folate status (red blood cell folate, P = 0.003; serum folate, P 0.02; tHcy, P = 0.01; simple regression) and those with low folate intakes, regardless of the inclusion (P = 0.021) or exclusion (P 0.049) of intake from supplements (simple regression). Adjustment for confounding variables confirmed the independence of these associations. The risk of SGA birth was also higher in subjects with low food iron intake (P 0.049), but not when intake included iron from supplements (P = 0.21). The risk of SGA birth was lower in subjects with iron deficiency anemia (P = 0.002).

Conclusion: Poor micronutrient intake and status increase the risk of SGA births in pregnant adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1114-24.”
“The mechanical stability of titania (TiO2) nanofibers was improved by fabricating TiO2/poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) composite fibers using a combination of hybrid electrospinning and sol-gel methods, followed by heat treatment at 250 degrees C for 3 h. The compositions (90/10, 80/20, and 70/30, w/w) of the TiO2/PDMS composite fibers were varied by adjusting the flow rate of the PDMS sol with the flow rate of TiO2 Sol fixed.

This prospective observational study aimed at analyzing the outco

This prospective observational study aimed at analyzing the outcome in a consecutive cohort of patients above 40 undergoing various methods of ART.

A total number of 909 women older than 40 attended our fertility centre during a 3 years period. GSK690693 mw A flowchart showing the consecutive ART treatments with their respective outcome was constructed. Any delivery after 22 weeks gestation (or 500 g.) was taken as primary endpoint. Crude cumulative delivery rates (CDRs) and binomial exact 95 % confidence limits (95 % CLs) were calculated for each group of interest.

ART treatment could be proposed to 737 patients (81 %) and eventually 585 patients (64

%) started ART treatment: 111 patients started IUI, 439 patients started IVF/ICSI and 35 patients started oocyte donation as a primary approach ART. Ten patients got pregnant spontaneously and delivered before starting any treatment. In the 909 patients consulting for infertility, 111 deliveries were achieved after ART, i.e. a crude CDR of 12.2 % (95 % CL 10.1 % to 14.5 %).

Only 10 % of patients aged 40 and above could achieve delivery of their genetically-own child, while 1 % conceived spontaneously. More than one third of patients

consulting never started any treatment for different reasons, i.e. anticipated poor prognosis, financial restrictions, illness or spontaneous pregnancy.”
“Although inflammatory immune cells clearly contribute to the development of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice, the failure to block neutrophil-associated Selleckchem GSK1210151A injury in clinical stroke trials

has discouraged further development of immunotherapeutic approaches. However, there is renewed interest in a possible protective role for regulatory T and B cells that can suppress inflammation and limit central nervous system damage induced by infiltrating pro-inflammatory cells. Our failure to implicate CD4(+)FoxP3(+) T cells in limiting brain lesion volume after MCAO turned our focus towards regulatory B cells known to mediate protection against other inflammatory CNS conditions. Our results clearly demonstrated that B cell-deficient mice developed larger infarct volumes, Selleckchem LY2228820 higher mortality, and more severe functional deficits compared to wild-type mice and had increased numbers of activated T cells, macrophages, microglial cells, and neutrophils in the affected brain hemisphere. These MCAO-induced changes were completely prevented in B cell-restored mice after transfer of highly purified WT B cells but not IL-10-deficient B cells. Our novel observations are the first to implicate IL-10-secreting B cells as a major regulatory cell type in stroke and suggest that enhancement of regulatory B cells might have application as a novel therapy for this devastating neurologic condition.


effect of reaction conditions such as Cu(III) concent


effect of reaction conditions such as Cu(III) concentration, reaction temperature, and the weight ratio of MMA/CS on the mean particle size was also investigated. Insulin-loaded nanoparticles were prepared, and their maximal association efficiency was up to 85.41%. The experiment of release in vitro showed that the nanoparticles gave an initial burst release followed by a slowly sustained one. VC 2011 Wiley selleck products Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 2707-2715, 2011″
“We evaluated the potential moderating effect of emotional distress (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2, scales D and Pt) on language functioning (i.e., Boston Naming Test, phonemic paraphasic error production on the Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Task, Animal Naming, Token Test) in patients with left (N = 43) and right (N = 34) mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) (N = 30). FK866 ic50 Video/EEG and brain imaging results confirmed localization. Logistic regression models revealed that perceived emotional distress moderated language performance. Performance of patients with left MTLE and that of patients with FLE were equally poor across language measures. Performance of patients with right MTLE was intact. Depression and anxiety differentially moderated performance. Anxiety was associated with better performance in patients with FLE on classically temporal

lobe-mediated tasks (Boston Naming Test). Depression was associated with worse

language performance on measures for which impaired performance was traditionally intrinsic to the underlying epileptogenic lesion (word fluency in FLE). Emotional distress influences language performance. Adequate treatment of mood should be considered when managing pharmacoresistant epilepsy. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“First-principles scalar relativistic calculations check details in supercells of 16 atoms are used to represent disordered B2 ordering of Fe3Ga in order to observe the effect of Ga-Ga pairs on the electronic structure of this alloy. From a comparison with pure bcc Fe it is observed that the energy position and occupation of e(g) and t(2g) states are largely affected by the Ga-Ga pairs and strengthened intraplane interactions takes place. The results show that a larger hybridization of the conduction band is in the source of the magnetostriction enhancement experimentally observed in Galfenol. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3525609]“
“The nonlinear optical response of the liquid crystalline multiarm star-shaped azodendrimer was investigated in picosecond pulse and CW regimes at 532 nm. The polymer exhibited large nonlinear refractive coefficient in two regimes (n(2) = -2.88 x 10(-13) cm(2) /W and -1.1 x 10(-10) cm(2) /W under picoseconds pulse excitation, whereas n(2) = -1.4 x 10(-6) cm(2) /W and n(2) = -8.8 x 10(-5) cm(2)/W under CW laser excitation in solution and film, respectively).


Conclusion: Chk inhibitor Daily supplementation for 2 y with 80-120 mg soy hypocotyl isoflavones has minimal risk in healthy menopausal women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. gov as NCT00665860 Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:356-67.”
“A number of exciting findings have been made in astrocytes during the past 15 years that have

led many researchers to redefine how the brain works. Astrocytes are now widely regarded as cells that propagate Ca(2+) over long distances in response to Stimulation, and, similar to neurons, release transmitters (called gliotransmitters) in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner to modulate a host of important brain functions. Although these discoveries have been very exciting, it is essential to place them in the proper context of the approaches used to obtain them to determine their relevance to brain physiology. This review revisits the key observations made in astrocytes that greatly impact how they are thought to regulate brain function, including the existence of widespread propagating intercellular Ca(2+) waves, data suggesting that astrocytes signal to neurons through Ca(2+)-dependent release of glutamate, and evidence

for the presence of vesicular machinery for the regulated exocytosis of gliotransmitters.”
“Background: selleck chemicals Chemical insecticides against mosquitoes are a major component of malaria control worldwide. Fungal entomopathogens formulated as biopesticides and applied as insecticide

residual sprays could augment current control strategies and mitigate the evolution of resistance to chemical-based insecticides.

Methods: Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were exposed to Beauveria bassiana or Metarhizium acridum fungal spores and sub-lethal effects of exposure to fungal infection were studied, especially the potential for reductions in feeding and host location behaviours related to olfaction. Electrophysiological techniques, such as electroantennogram, electropalpogram and single sensillum recording techniques were then employed to investigate how fungal exposure learn more affected the olfactory responses in mosquitoes.

Results: Exposure to B. bassiana caused significant mortality and reduced the propensity of mosquitoes to respond and fly to a feeding stimulus. Exposure to M. acridum spores induced a similar decline in feeding propensity, albeit more slowly than B. bassiana exposure. Reduced host-seeking responses following fungal exposure corresponded to reduced olfactory neuron responsiveness in both antennal electroantennogram and maxillary palp electropalpogram recordings. Single cell recordings from neurons on the palps confirmed that fungal-exposed behavioural non-responders exhibited significantly impaired responsiveness of neurons tuned specifically to 1-octen-3-ol and to a lesser degree, to CO(2).

An update on results from pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic prev

An update on results from pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic prevention trials is provided.”
“Objective-To determine the effect of PO administration of pimobendan on clinical

and echocardiographic variables and survival time in cats with heart failure characterized by ventricular systolic dysfunction.

Design-Retrospective cohort study.

Animals-27 client-owned cats (16 male and 11 female) with heart failure, treated with pimobendan (mean +/- SD dosage, 0.26 +/- 0.08 mg/kg [0.118 +/- 0.036 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h).

Procedures-Information on medical history, laboratory results, diagnostic imaging findings, treatments received, and survival time were obtained from medical records of cats that received pimobendan because of cardiac disease. When possible, additional

follow-up information was obtained through telephone interviews with referring veterinarians and owners.

Results-The mean +/- SD age of all 27 cats was 8.9 +/- 5.2 years. All cats had received several cardiac medications. Types of heart disease represented included unclassified cardiomyopathy (CM; n = 11 [41%]), dilated CM (8 [30%]), arrhythmogenic right ventricular CM (4 [15%]), congenital heart disease (3 [11%]), and hypertrophic CM with regional hypokinesis (1 [4%]). All cats had ventricular systolic dysfunction. One cat with systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve became severely hypotensive after initial administration of pimobendan and was excluded from the survival analysis. Median survival time was 167 days (95% confidence interval, 32 to 339 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Pimobendan appeared to be well tolerated in cats with heart failure characterized by ventricular

systolic dysfunction of various etiologies. Cats with systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve may develop systemic hypotension when treated with pimobendan. Additional studies are needed to establish dosages for pimobendan and its effects before it can be recommended for treatment of cats with CHF. (J Am Vet MEd Assoc 2012;241:89-94)”
“Polyamines are key regulators of cell development and many plant responses to environmental challenges, however, their functions still remain unclear in complex interactions with other hormones and in biotic or abiotic stress. This lack of knowledge derives from the difficulties on measuring natural polyamines in plants. Here, we present a fast multiresidue method for putrescine (Put), 1,3-diaminopropane (DAP), L-ornithine, spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spn) measurements in plant samples. Polyamine determination is based on a perchloric acid extraction followed by a simple filtration procedure without previous derivatization. Polyamines are resolved by HPLC in a C18 common column and quantified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. (13)C(4)-putrescine and 1,7-diaminoheptane standards were added prior to sample extraction to achieve an accurate quantification in a single run.