The purpose of the present study was to examine muscle use during

The purpose of the present study was to examine muscle use during double poling (DP) at two work intensities by use of PET. Eight male subjects performed two 20-min DP bouts on separate days. Work intensity was similar to 53 and 74% of peak oxygen uptake (V.O(2peak)), respectively. During exercise 188 +/- 8 MBq of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose

([(18)F]FDG) was injected, and subsequent to exercise a full-body PET scan was conducted. Regions of interest BMS-345541 manufacturer (ROI) were defined within 15 relevant muscles, and a glucose uptake index (GUI) was determined for all ROIs. The muscles that span the shoulder and elbow joints, the abdominal muscles, and hip flexors displayed the greatest GUI during DP. Glucose uptake did not increase significantly from low to high intensity in most upper body muscles; however, an increased GUI (P < 0.05) was seen for the knee flexor (27%) and extensor muscles (16%), and for abdominal muscles (21%). The present data confirm previous findings that muscles of the upper limb are the primary working muscles in DP. The present data further suggest that when exercise intensity increases,

the muscles that span the lumbar spine, hip, and knee joints contribute increasingly. Finally, PET provides a promising alternative or supplement to existing methods to TGF-beta family assess muscle activation in complex human movements.”
“Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) Screening Library clinical trial is an organic anion efflux pump capable of transporting nucleoside, nucleotide analogs, and cyclic nucleotide. MRP4 could have an influence on the resistance and transport of the two oxazaphosphorines, cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF). V/HepG2 (HepG2, hepatoma cells stably transfected with an empty vehicle plasmid) and MRP4/HepG2 (HepG2 cells stably expressing MRP4) were exposed to CP and IF in the absence or presence of various MRP4 inhibitors. HepG2 and HEK293 human kidney cells were also used to investigate the inducing potency of oxazaphosphorines on the MRP4 expression. In this study, insertion of MRP4 gene in HepG2 cells was found to confer significant resistance

to CP and IF in the 48-h drug-exposure assays. In the presence of various MRP4 inhibitors, the resistance to CP and IF was then partially reversed. These indicate that CP and IF are highly possible substrates of MRP4. In addition, CP and clofibrate (CFB), a reported MRP4 inducer, in vivo significantly increased the MRP4 expression at both protein level and mRNA level in HEK293 cells at higher concentrations, while IF significantly decreased the MRP4 expression at mRNA level at lower concentration and had no effect at higher concentrations. However, all tested compounds (CP, IF, and CFB) did not change the MRP4 protein expression in HepG2 cells. CP and CFB are cell-specific and concentration-dependent MRP4 inducers.

Survival of culturable Camp jejuni in some pre-established biofi

Survival of culturable Camp. jejuni in some pre-established biofilms was extended vs survival of culturable Camp. jejuni in broth. But some biofilms were detrimental to survival of culturable Camp. jejuni. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis indicated differences in bacterial profiles find more depending on initial source and temperature of culturing, which may have had impacts on survival of culturable Camp. jejuni. Further

investigation showed no evidence of interspecies cell signalling indicating that secondary colonization was only physical.\n\nConclusions: The results of this study show Camp. jejuni’s attachment to surfaces is facilitated by pre-established biofilms and survival of culturable Camp. jejuni may be extended in some pre-established biofilms, but these biofilms do not fully explain long-term survival of culturable Camp. jejuni outside hosts.\n\nSignificance and Impact of the Study: This study provides new information concerning survival of culturable Camp. jejuni outside the host and shows biofilms may be important in transmission and prevalence of Camp. jejuni.”
“It is seemingly paradoxical to the classical definition of the independent component analysis (ICA), that in reality, the true sources are often not strictly uncorrelated. With this in mind, this letter concerns a framework to extract quasi-uncorrelated sources

with finite AZD8055 solubility dmso supports by optimizing a range-based contrast function under unit-norm constraints (to handle the inherent scaling indeterminacy of ICA) but without orthogonality constraints.

Albeit the appealing contrast properties of the range-based function (e.g., the absence of mixing local optima), the function is not differentiable everywhere. Unfortunately, there is a dearth LCL161 cost of literature on derivative-free optimizers that effectively handle such a nonsmooth yet promising contrast function. This is the compelling reason for the design of a nonsmooth optimization algorithm on a manifold of matrices having unit-norm columns with the following objectives: to ascertain convergence to a Clarke stationary point of the contrast function and adhere to the necessary unit-norm constraints more naturally. The proposed nonsmooth optimization algorithm crucially relies on the design and analysis of an extension of the mesh adaptive direct search (MADS) method to handle locally Lipschitz objective functions defined on the sphere. The applicability of the algorithm in the ICA domain is demonstrated with simulations involving natural, face, aerial, and texture images.”
“The generation time of an infectious disease is the time between infection of a primary case and infection of a secondary case by the primary case. Its distribution plays a key role in understanding the dynamics of infectious diseases in populations, e.g. in estimating the basic reproduction number.

Binding was partly dependent on CS/DS as digesting the chains res

Binding was partly dependent on CS/DS as digesting the chains resulted in relatively decreased cytoadherence. It also showed significantly increased binding to chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate.

Thus, combined milieu of high glucose and high cholesterol can have more deleterious consequences than either of them independently. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Alvespimycin mw This study aimed at exploring the effect of preoperative risk factors and hospital characteristics oil costs of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) hospitalizations.\n\nBackground: The considerable investment in hospital-based cardiac programs has not been Coupled with comparable efforts to explore cost drivers of associated procedures.\n\nMethods: Data Sources included (a) New York State’s Cardiac Surgery Reporting System, (b) New York State’s Statewide Planning and Research

Cooperative System dataset, (c) American Hospital Association dataset, and (d) Medicare Hospital Cost Report Public Use files and wage index files. The study population comprised New York state residents Who underwent an isolated CABG procedure in a New York State hospital and were discharged in 2003. The outcome measure STI571 concentration was inpatient costs. Independent variables included patient (demographic and clinical) and hospital characteristics.\n\nResults: The total number of cases was 12,016. Findings revealed that selected demographic characteristics, including older age, female gender, and being black, were associated with higher costs. Several clinical characteristics were found to affect CABG discharge Costs Such as lower ejection fraction, the duration between CABG admission and the Occurrence of myocardial infarction, number of diseased vessels, previous open heart operations, and a number of comorbidities. Furthermore, larger hospitals were associated with higher CABG discharge costs, while costs significantly decreased with higher CABG volume.\n\nConclusions: Hospitals should explore ways to address

patient (patient management) and hospital (case volume), when possible, associated with higher CABG discharge costs in its efforts to contain costs.”
“Background. Concomitant aortic valve replacement (AVR) and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is a common procedure. Whether the extent of coronary artery AG-014699 ic50 disease (CAD) influences outcomes of AVR plus CABG is unknown.\n\nMethods. All AVR plus CABG cases from 2008 to 2010 were extracted from the California CABG Outcomes Reporting Program database. Patients with left main coronary artery stenosis greater than 50% or at least three diseased vessels were defined as having extensive CAD, and patients with one or two diseased coronary vessels were defined as having less extensive CAD. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed for predicting major postoperative complications and 30-day mortality.

Strain GRS42(T) revealed low DNA-DNA hybridization ( smaller than

Strain GRS42(T) revealed low DNA-DNA hybridization ( smaller than 50 % relatedness) with closely related strains. Based on the data obtained in the present polyphasic taxonomic study, we propose that strain KIS82-1(T) represents a novel genus and species and that strain GRS42(T) represents a novel species in the family Microbacteriaceae. The genus Galbitalea gen. nov. is proposed, with strain KIS82-1(T) (=KACC

15520(T)=NBRC 108727(T)) as the type strain of the type species, Galbitalea soli sp. nov. Strain GRS42(T) (=KACC 15521(T)=NBRC 108728(T)) is proposed as the type strain of Frondihabitans Sapitinib manufacturer sucicola sp. nov.”
“Immune cells utilize the IDO enzymatic conversion of trp to kyn to determine T-cell activation vs. anergy/apoptosis. In prior studies, urine IDO levels were higher in rejecting renal allografts than in stable state. However, urine IDO levels in healthy subjects or children are unknown. As a corollary to a larger AG-881 longitudinal and prospective study of serum and urine IDO levels for transplant immune monitoring, here, we

analyzed the difference between urine IDO levels in stable post-transplant vs. healthy children. IDO levels were measured by tandem mass spectrometry and expressed as kyn/trp ratios. We compared one-time urine samples, from 34 well children at general pediatric clinics, to the first-month post-transplant urine samples from 18 children, while in stable state (no acute rejection or major infection event in next 30days). Urine kyn/trp ratios were significantly higher in stable children in first-month post-kidney transplant (median 16.6, range 3.9-44.0) vs. healthy children (median 9.2, range 3.51-17.0; p=0.0057 by nonparametric Mann-Whitney

test). Higher urine IDO levels even with stable transplant suggest a continuous ongoing low-grade allorecognition/inflammatory process. Our data also provide baseline urine IDO levels in healthy subjects for use in future studies.”
“There is limited information on the prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC) among stroke patients, and no community-based survey has addressed this issue. We performed a 3-Phase, population-based study, to assess the prevalence and pathogenesis of stroke in a rural village of coastal Ecuador, where cysticercosis is highly endemic. Twenty selleck inhibitor stroke patients were found among 642 individuals >= 40 years of age. Eighteen of these patients underwent neuroimaging studies and no patient had evidence of NCC or angiitis of intracranial vessels. The serum immunoblot test for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, performed in 15 of these 20 patients during a previous survey, were negative in 13 cases and the remaining two had a normal computed tomography of the head. This study suggests that NCC is not responsible for the increasing burden of stroke in rural areas of developing countries.

Use of MRE may lead to new quantitative tissue characterization p

Use of MRE may lead to new quantitative tissue characterization parameters for differentiating benign Selleckchem Sapitinib and malignant liver tumors.”
“The present work was devoted to investigations concerning the purification and characterisation of the fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-producing extracellular enzyme of Rhodotorula sp. LEB-V10. FOS are functional food ingredients showing prebiotic properties, meaning that it could stimulate selectively the growth and/or activity of probiotic bacteria in the gut. The purification of the enzyme was carried out according to the following sequential procedure:

cell separation by centrifugation, recovering by ethanol precipitation and purification by anion exchange chromatography. The molecular weight was estimated

to be 170 kDa by preparative gel filtration and 77 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, signifying that the native enzyme exists as a dimer. With sucrose as substrate, the data failed to fit the Michaelis-Menten behaviour, rather showing a sigmoid shape similar to that of the allosteric enzymes (cooperative behaviour), requiring high sucrose concentrations to obtain high reaction rates. The enzyme showed both fructofuranosidase AG-881 order (FA) and fructosyl-transferase (FTA) activities. The optimum pH and temperature for FA activity were found to be around 4.0 and 72-75 degrees C, respectively, while FTA showed optimum activity at pH 4.5 and 65-70 degrees C. Both activities were very stable at temperatures below 66 degrees C, while for FA, the enzyme was more stable at pH 4.0 and for FTA at pH 5.0.”
“Although a single diagnostic label, conduct disorder, is currently applied to children exhibiting antisocial behaviour, multiple routes to the same behavioural phenomena exist. Morton and Frith’s (1995) causal modelling has been fundamentally important in influencing models of cognitive/affective and associated neural differences between callous-unemotional (CU) and LY3023414 purchase reactive/threat-based antisocial behaviour. Current behavioural

genetic research is still catching up with the developmental cognitive neuroscience, and very few genetically informative studies differentiate between these two subtypes of antisocial behaviour. Our own work with preadolescent twins suggests that while the CU subtype is genetically vulnerable to antisocial behaviour, the non-CU subtype manifests a primarily environmental aetiology to their antisocial behaviour. Molecular genetic work to date has not differentiated between these two subtypes, and we highlight why it might be of interest to do so. Finally, we discuss how the novel approach of imaging genetics could be harnessed to study genes to cognition pathways for different subtypes of conduct disorder. Uta Frith’s contributions to articulating research strategies for developmental disorders are important in conducting and interpreting this work.

Their physico-chemical characteristics were analysed, and bioassa

Their physico-chemical characteristics were analysed, and bioassays were carried out for the detection of their phytotoxicity and nitrogen drawdown index (NDI). Seedlings

grown in a greenhouse in Seville, during spring 2007, were irrigated 5 days a week with a Hoagland solution. Each species was arranged in a randomised block design with four replications. Substrates showed no phytotoxicity or nitrogen immobilisation. Physical characteristics of GM suggested some limitations for use as growing medium in plug seedlings production (total available water content of 12.7% in GM and 25.9% in Pt), although it can be avoided by blending with other substrates and by managing irrigation. At the time of transplant lettuce seedlings showed only differences in green colour intensity measured by SPAD, which was higher in GM (20.3) that in Pt (18.7). Seedling height of pepper, melon and SNX-5422 in vitro tomato grown in GM was on average 30% lower than that achieved in Pt. The height increased as the proportion of Pt in the substrates did

so. There were also differences in dry weight and root neck diameter in tomato and melon that were lower in GM than in Pt. Both parameters A-1155463 datasheet improved with the proportion of Pt in the mixtures. Plants analyses showed significant differences that did vary depending on the species and the treatment, and they suggest nutrient imbalances in seedlings. These results would indicate that, under a correct irrigation and fertilisation management, GM and GM + Pt blending could be used successfully as medium component for plug production of vegetable seedlings. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The progenitor of maize is Balsas teosinte (Zea mays subsp. parviglumis) which grows as a wild plant in the valley of the Balsas river in Mexico. DMH1 order Domestication, primarily targeting above-ground traits, has led to substantial changes in the plant’s morphology and modern maize cultivars poorly resemble their wild ancestor. We examined the hypotheses that Balsas teosinte (accession PI 384071) has a) a different

root system architecture and b) a structurally and functionally different rhizosphere microbial community than domesticated cultivars sweet corn (Zea mays subsp. mays accession PI 494083) and popping corn (Zea mays subsp. mays accession PI 542713). In a greenhouse experiment, five plants from each corn variety were grown in individual pots containing a Maury silt loam – perlite (2:1) mixture and grown to the V8 growth stage at which rhizosphere bacterial and fungal community structure was assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Functional characteristics of the rhizosphere were assayed by examining the potential activity of seven extracellular enzymes involved in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling. Root system architecture was characterized by root scans of sand grown plants at the V5 growth stage.

6%) from cancer Self-rated and physician-rated health both predi

6%) from cancer. Self-rated and physician-rated health both predicted independently all-cause mortality (hazard ratios [HR] for worst vs. best health category: 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26-2.33, and 1.77; 95% CI: 1.36-2.29; respectively; P-values of < 0.005). When self-rated and physician-rated health were discordant, mortality risk was highest when physicians had a less favourable view on the health status LY-374973 than the participant. Self-rated health predicted independently cancer mortality (HR 2.41), whereas physician-rated health cardiovascular

mortality (HR 2.13).\n\nConclusion: Self-rated and physician-rated health status predicted both all-cause mortality, and showed a differential pattern for cancer and cardiovascular diseases mortality.”
“Artificial intelligence techniques

are important tools for modelling and optimizing the solid-state fermentation (SSF) factors. The performance of fermentation processes is affected by numerous factors, including temperature, moisture content, agitation, inoculum level, carbon and nitrogen sources, etc. In this paper, the identification of non-linear relationship between fermentation factors and targeted objectives is performed, first, using the learning capabilities of a neural LY3039478 research buy network (NN). Then, this approach is coupled with various artificial intelligence techniques to optimize the fermentation process, such as Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The effectiveness of different approaches is compared with the classical statistical techniques, such as Response Surface Methodology (RSM), that are increasingly being used. This paper presents the first attempt to adapt these approaches on the solid state fermentation process. The obtained results prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Particularly, we show that this approach leads

to a significant improvement on the fermentation process performance. Biotechnol. & Selleck GSK2245840 Biotechnol. Eq. 2012, 26(6), 3443-3450″
“Agricultural industry is subjected to enormous environmental constraints, particularly due to salinity and drought. We evaluated the role of silicon (Si) in alleviating salinity and drought induced physio-hormonal changes in soybean grown in perlite. The plant growth attributes i.e., shoot length, plant fresh weight and dry weight parameters of soybean improved with elevated Si nutrition, while they decreased with NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) application. The adverse effects of NaCl and PEG on plant growth were alleviated by adding 100 mg L(-1) and 200 mg L(-1) Si to salt and drought stressed treatments. It was observed that Si effectively mitigated the adverse effects of NaCl on soybean than that of PEG. The chlorophyll contents were found to be least affected as an insignificant increase was observed with Si application. Bioactive GA(1) and GA(4) contents of soybean leaves increased, when Si was added to control or stressed plants.

Thirty-seven percent of approved supplements involved a change to

Thirty-seven percent of approved supplements involved a change to the device’s design. Among 180-day supplements approved

from 2010-2012, 23% (15/64) included new clinical data to support safety and effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Many CIED models currently used by clinicians were approved via the PMA supplement process, not as original PMAs. Most new device models are deemed safe and effective without requiring new clinical data, reinforcing the importance of rigorous postapproval surveillance of these devices.”
“Serial crystallography using X-ray free-electron lasers enables the collection of tens of thousands of measurements from an equal number of individual crystals, each of which can be smaller than 1 mu m in size. This manuscript describes an alternative way of handling diffraction learn more data recorded by serial femtosecond crystallography, by mapping the diffracted SN-38 nmr intensities into three-dimensional reciprocal space rather than integrating each image in two dimensions as in the classical approach. We call this procedure ‘three-dimensional merging’. This procedure retains information about asymmetry in Bragg peaks and diffracted intensities between Bragg spots. This intensity distribution can be used to extract reflection intensities for structure determination and opens up novel avenues

for post-refinement, while observed intensity between Bragg peaks and peak asymmetry are of potential use in novel direct phasing strategies.”
“Population heterogeneity complicates the predictability of the outgrowth kinetics of individual spores. Flow cytometry sorting and monitoring of the germination and outgrowth of single dormant spores allowed the quantification of acid-induced spore population heterogeneity at pH 5.5 and in the presence of sorbic acid. This showed that germination Thiazovivin clinical trial efficiency was not a good predictor for heterogeneity in final outgrowth.”
“Thrombin promotes vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and inflammation

via protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1. A further thrombin receptor, PAR-3, acts as a PAR-1 cofactor in some cell-types. Unlike PAR-1, PAR-3 is dynamically regulated at the mRNA level in thrombin-stimulated SMC. This study investigated the mechanisms controlling PAR-3 expression. In human vascular SMC, PAR-3 siRNA attenuated thrombin-stimulated interleukin-6 expression and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 phosphorylation, indicating PAR-3 contributes to net thrombin responses in these cells. Thrombin slowed the decay of PAR-3 but not PAR-1 mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D and induced cytosolic shuttling and PAR-3 mRNA binding of the mRNA-stabilizing protein human antigen R (HuR). HuR siRNA prevented thrombin-induced PAR-3 expression. By contrast, forskolin inhibited HuR shuttling and destabilized PAR-3 mRNA, thus reducing PAR-3 mRNA and protein expression.

We then applied these treatment effects to 2 different composite

We then applied these treatment effects to 2 different composite CV outcomes generated using blinded data from the

ongoing Nateglinide and Valsortan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) trial and analyzed them on a time-to-first-event basis. The composites were CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure and an “extended” composite that included hospitalization for angina and coronary revascularization.\n\nResults The odds reductions due to angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blocker treatment estimated from the meta-analysis were as follows: CV death: 13%, P < .0001; nonfatal myocardial infarction: PD0332991 chemical structure 16%, P < .00001; nonfatal stroke: 14%, P = .006; heart failure: 28%, P < .00001; hospitalization for angina: 7%, P = .02; and revascularization: 5%, P = .17. For the CV composites, the projected odds reduction was larger (17.8%, 95% CI 0.452-1.189) for the narrower composite compared with the extended CV composite (11.7%, 95% CI 0.623-1.136); that is, use of the extended composite reduced power buy AZD6244 to detect a difference between treatment groups.\n\nConclusions Although the use of CV composites augments event rates, it may not increase statistical

power. Inclusion of events little influenced by an intervention may reduce the precision of the composite end point and mask treatment effects.”
“Fibroblast growth factor 8b (FGF8b) is the major isoform of FGF8 expressed in prostate cancer and it correlates with the stage and grade of the disease. FGF8b has been

considered as a potential target for prostate cancer therapy. Here we isolated 12 specific FGF8b-binding phage clones by screening a phage display heptapeptide library with FGF8b. The peptide (HSQAAVP, named as P12) corresponding to one of these clones showed high homology to the immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain II(D2) of high-affinity FGF8b receptor (FGFR3c), contained 3 identical amino acids (AVP) to the authentic FGFR3 D2 sequence aa 163-169 (LLAVPAA) directly participating in ligand binding, carried β-Nicotinamide research buy the same charges as its corresponding motif (aa163-169) in FGFR3c, suggesting that P12 may have a greater potential to interrupt FGF8b binding to its receptors than other identified heptapeptides do. Functional analysis indicated that synthetic P12 peptides mediate significant inhibition of FGF8b-induced cell proliferation, arrest cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase via suppression of Cyclin D1 and PCNA, and blockade of the activations of Erk1/2 and Akt cascades in both prostate cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells. The results demonstrated that the P12 peptide acting as an FGF8b antagonist may have therapeutic potential in prostate cancer. (c) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

aeolicus FlgM protein exhibits alpha-helical character in circula

aeolicus FlgM protein exhibits alpha-helical character in circular dichroism (CD) experiments, though the percentage of alpha-helical content decreases with increased

temperature, consistent with the FlgM assuming a less folded conformation. We also show that the A. aeolicus FlgM exhibits cooperativity in chemical denaturation experiments, consistent with a globular nature. Furthermore, we use the fluorescent probe FlAsH to CH5183284 inhibitor show that the H2 helix is ordered, even in the unbound state and that the H1 and H2 helices appear to be associated with each other in the absence of the sigma(28) protein. Finally, we demonstrate that the H2 helix assumes an extended conformation at 85 degrees C. Based on our results, we propose that at 20 degrees C the A. aeolicus FlgM assumes a four-helix bundle-like conformation that becomes a more extended conformation at the A. aeolicus’ physiological temperature of 85 degrees C. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Four species of Prunella L. (Prunella vulgaris L., LY2835219 Prunella laciniata L., Prunella grand:flora L. and Prunella orientalis Bornm.)

belong to the family of Lamiaceae and representing popular Western and Chinese herbal medicine were examined for the content of phenolic compounds. Phenolic acids (rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid), flavonoids (rutin, quercetin) in different quantitative proportions depending on extracts were determined by the rapid, selective and accurate method combining solvent/acid hydrolysis AL3818 supplier extraction and high performance liquid chromatographydiode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Water, methanol, butanol, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, hexane and their acidic

solutions were used to examine the efficiency of different solvent systems for the extraction of phenolic compounds. Acid hydrolysis extraction was established as the most suitable extraction method for phenolic compounds. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The antioxidant activity of the aqueous ethanolic extract of doum leaves, Hyphaene thebaica L. (Palmae) was studied. Data obtained showed that the extract can inhibit reactive oxygen species attack on salicylic acid (IC(50) = 1602 mu g/ml) in a dose dependant manner using xanthine/hypoxanthine oxidase assay. Four major flavonoidal compounds were identified by LC/SEI as; Quercetin glucoside, Kaempferol rhamnoglucoside and Dimethyoxyquercetin rhamnoglucoside.