The glutamic that translated with the mutational codon is conservative when compared 3-deazaneplanocin A in vitro with other species. Conclusions: We detected a synonymous variation in the protein-coding exon-2 of PLAGL1 in isolated VSD patients. It is possible that the etiology of isolated
VSD might not be directly linked with this mutation, but might be associated with other patterns of gene expression regulation in PLAGL1, such as in the methylation-dependent manner.”
“Kinin-vasoactive peptides activate two G-protein-coupled receptors (R), B1R (inducible) and B2R (constitutive). Their complex role in cardiovascular diseases could be related to differential actions on oxidative stress. This study investigated impacts of B1R or B2R gene deletion in mice on the cardiac function and plasma antioxidant and oxidant status. Echocardiography-Doppler was performed in B1R (B1R-/-) and B2R (B2R-/-) deficient and wild type (WT) adult male mice. No functional alteration was observed in B2R-/- hearts. B1R-/- mice
had significantly lowered fractional shortening and increased isovolumetric contraction time. The diastolic E and A waves velocity ratio was similar in all mice groups. Thus B1R-/- mice provide a model of moderate systolic dysfunction, whereas B2R-/- mice displayed a normal cardiac phenotype. Plasma antioxidant capacity (ORAC) was significantly decreased in both B1R-/- and B2R-/- mice whereas the vitamin C levels were decreased in B2R-/- mice only. Plasma ascorbyl free Cyclopamine radical was significantly higher in B1R-/- compared to WT and B2R-/- mice. Therefore,
the oxidative stress index, ascorbyl free radical to vitamin C ratio, was increased in both B1R-/- and B2R-/- mice. Hence, B1R and B2R deficiency are associated with increased oxidative stress, but there is a differential PFTα datasheet imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defense. The interrelationship between the differential B1R and B2R roles in oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases remain to be investigated.”
“Ergot alkaloids, secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi, elicit a diverse array of pharmacological effects. The biosynthesis of this class of natural products has not been fully elucidated. Here we demonstrate that a homologue of Old Yellow Enzyme encoded in the Aspergillus fumigatus ergot gene cluster catalyzes reduction of the alpha,beta unsaturated alkene of chanoclavine-1 aldehyde 3. This reduction, Which yields dihydrochanoclavine aldehyde, Facilitates an intramolecular reaction between a secondary amine and aldehyde to form the D ring of the ergot alkaloid structural framework.”
“Gene discovery and marker development using DNA-based tools require plant populations with well-documented phenotypes. If dissimilar phenotype evaluation methods or data scoring techniques are used with different crops, or at different laboratories for the same crops, then data mining for genetic marker correlations is challenging.
Because creatine is an antioxidant, we postulated that creatine might enhance expression of CKB by reducing oxidative stress. In addition to selleck inhibitor HD-related hearing impairment, inferior CKB expression and/or an impaired PCr-CK system may also play
an important role in other hearing impairments caused by elevated levels of ROS. Most importantly, dietary supplements may be beneficial to patients with these hearing deficiencies.”
“Background: Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is recognized as a human carcinogen via inhalation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Cr(VI) causes cancers are not well understood.\n\nObjectives: We evaluated cyclooxygenase2 (COX 2) expression and the signaling pathway leading to this induction due to Cr(VI) exposure in cultured cells.\n\nMethods: We used the luciferase reporter assay and Western blotting to determine COX 2 induction by Cr(VI). We used dominant negative mutant, genetic knockout, gene knockdown, and chromatin immunoprecipitation approaches to elucidate the signaling pathway leading to COX 2 induction.\n\nResults: We found that Cr(VI) exposure induced COX 2 expression in both
normal human bronchial epithelial cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts in a concentration and timedependent manner. Deletion of IKK beta [inhibitor of transcription factor NF kappa B (I kappa B) kinase beta; an upstream kinase responsible buy GM6001 for nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B) activation] or overexpression of TAM67 (a dominantnegative mutant of cJun) dramatically inhibited the COX 2 induction due to Cr(VI), suggesting that both NF kappa B and cJun/AP1 pathways were required for Cr(VI)induced COX 2 expression. Our results show that p65 and cJun are two major components involved in NF.B and AP1 activation, respectively. Moreover, our studies suggest crosstalk between NF.B and cJun/AP1 pathways in cellular response MLN4924 nmr to Cr(VI) exposure for COX 2 induction.\n\nConclusion: We demonstrate for the
first time that Cr(VI) is able to induce COX 2 expression via an NF kappa B/cJun/AP1dependent pathway. Our results provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms linking Cr(VI) exposure to lung inflammation and carcinogenesis.”
“Fourteen microsatellite DNA markers were developed for studies of gene flow in the Neotropical rain forest tree Virola surinamensis. The loci were unlinked and polymorphic in a sample of 21 individuals, with two to 10 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.14 to 0.76. The overall exclusion probability (0.997) indicates high resolution for parentage-based analyses of gene flow.”
“Child abuse is a problem that affects the lives of many American children. The public is often bombarded with information regarding horrific cases of physical and sexual abuse.
“To identify potential determinants of substrate selectivity in serotonin (5-HT) transporters (SERT), models of human and Drosophila serotonin transporters (hSERT, dSERT) were built based on the leucine transporter (LeuT(Aa)) structure reported by Yamashita et al. (Nature 2005;437:215-223), PBDID Ricolinostat purchase 2A65. Although the overall amino acid identity between SERTs and the LeuTAa is only 17%, it increases to above 50% in the first shell of the
putative 5-HT binding site, allowing de novo computational docking of tryptamine derivatives in atomic detail. Comparison of hSERT and dSERT complexed with substrates pinpoints likely structural determinants for substrate binding. Forgoing the use of experimental transport and binding data of tryptamine derivatives for construction of these models enables us to critically assess and validate their predictive power: A single 5-HT binding mode was identified that retains the amine placement observed in the LeuT(Aa) structure, matches site-directed mutagenesis and substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) data, complies with support vector machine derived relations activity relations, and predicts computational binding energies for 5-HT analogs with a significant correlation coefficient (R = 0.72). This binding mode places 5-HT deep in the binding pocket of the SERT with the 5-position near residue
hSERT A169/dSERT D164 in transmembrane helix 3, the indole nitrogen next to residue Y176/Y171, and the ethylamine Selleckchem AG-120 tail under residues F335/F327 and S336/S328 within 4 angstrom of residue D98. Our studies identify a number of potential contacts whose contribution to substrate binding and transport was previously unsuspected.”
“Objective: The impact of language proficiency as a potential contributor to ethnic disparities in mental health care has received less attention click here than other factors. Data from the National Latino and Asian American Study were examined to assess the impact of limited English proficiency (LEP) on access to and quality of mental health care
for community-dwelling Latino and Asian Americans with mental disorders.\n\nMethods: English-proficient (EP) and LEP individuals with mental disorders were compared on lifetime use of healthcare services for a mental disorder, duration of untreated disorders, receipt of minimally adequate care, and barriers to treatment (eg, lack of identification of need for treatment, language barriers, and embarrassment or discomfort related to treatment).\n\nResults: Compared with EP individuals, LEP individuals with mental disorders were significantly less likely to identify a need for mental health services, experience longer duration of untreated disorders, and use fewer healthcare services for mental disorders, particularly specialty mental health care. Receipt of minimally adequate care did not differ significantly by language proficiency. Embarrassment and discomfort were not more common among LEP individuals.
(C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
“Initial treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer is based on a total thyroidectomy and in many cases on the administration of radioactive iodine. Following total thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine is given, based on the primary tumor characteristics. In case of a very low-risk of recurrence it is recommended not to give radioactive treatment. In case of intermediate risk patients, two randomized prospective studies (ESTIMABL and HILO) have shown that an activity of 1.1 GBq (30 mCi) given after recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormon (rhTSH) was adequate. A further step is taken towards less treatment has now been undertaken with the ESTIMABL2 study, a prospective randomized study comparing a treatment with 1.1 GBq (30 mCi) of radioactive iodine treatment to follow-up without ablation. In case of high-risk patients or in case of persistent disease a high activity of radioactive Prexasertib order iodine
is given after FGFR inhibitor TSH stimulation. In case of distant metastases, cure is obtained with radioactive iodine in 1/3 of the patients. In the absence of cure, patients are classified as refratory to radioactive iodine and may benefit from tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.”
“Based on resonance energy transfer (FRET) from dansyl to rhodamine 101, a new fluorescent probe (compound 1) containing rhodamine 101 and a dansyl unit was synthesized for detecting Hg2+ through ratiometric sensing in DMSO aqueous solutions. This probe shows a fast, reversible and selective response toward Hg2+ in a wide pH range. Hg2+ induced ring-opening reactions of the spirolactam rhodamine moiety Galunisertib of 1, leading to the formation of fluorescent derivatives that can serve as the FRET acceptors. Very large stokes shift (220 nm) was observed in this case. About 97-fold increase in fluorescence intensity ratio was observed upon its binding with Hg2+.”
“Retinol and vitamin A derivatives influence
cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis and play an important physiologic role in a wide range of biological processes. Retinol is obtained from foods of animal origin. Retinol derivatives are fundamental for vision, while retinoic acid is essential for skin and bone growth. Intracellular retinoid bioavailability is regulated by the presence of specific cytoplasmic retinol and retinoic acid binding proteins (CRBPs and CRABPs). CRBP-1, the most diffuse CRBP isoform, is a small 15KDa cytosolic protein widely expressed and evolutionarily conserved in many tissues. CRBP-1 acts as chaperone and regulates the uptake, subsequent esterification, and bioavailability of retinol. CRBP-1 plays a major role in wound healing and arterial tissue remodelling processes. In the last years, the role of CRBP-1-related retinoid signalling during cancer progression became object of several studies.
Evaluations of postoperative pain, the number of analgesics tablets taken, trismus, swelling, and quality of life (Oral Health Impact Profile-14 questionnaire) were made. The sample consisted of 28 female and 32 male patients, whose total mean age was 23.5 +/- 3.4 (range, 18-25) years. The pain level and the number of analgesics tablets taken were lower in the ozonated and LLLT applied groups than in the control group. This study showed that ozone and low power laser therapies had a positive effect on the patients’ quality of life. Trismus in the LLLT group was significantly less than in the ozonated and control groups (p = 0.033). Ozone application showed
no superiority in regards of postoperative swelling; however, LLLT group had significantly lower postoperative swelling. This selleck kinase inhibitor study demonstrates that ozone and laser therapies are useful for the reduction of postoperative pain and they increase quality of life after third-molar surgery. Although the ozone therapy had no effect on postoperative swelling and trismus after surgical removal of impacted lower third molars, LLLT had a positive effect.”
“Perinatal exposure to one or more drugs of abuse can affect the neonate temporarily or permanently. In
addition to meconium, the evaluation of perinatal exposure to drugs of abuse has been achieved by testing biological matrices coming from the newborn (neonatal hair) and from the pregnant or nursing mother (maternal hair and breast milk). These matrices have the advantage of noninvasive collection and account for a sizable time window of CA4P inhibitor active and passive exposure. Sensitive and specific analytical methods are required to determine minute amounts of drugs of abuse and metabolites in these matrices. The present manuscript reviews the newest analytical methods developed to detect drugs of abuse as well as ethanol biomarkers in maternal and neonatal hair and breast milk.”
study investigated whether improvement in cardiac function and attenuation of cardiac remodeling by some beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) antagonists were associated with a depression in sympathetic activity in congestive heart failure (CHF) LY2603618 in vivo due to myocardial infarction (MI). Although cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy and dilatation as well as increased plasma level of catecholamines are known to occur in CHF, the relationship between these parameters is poorly understood. Three weeks after occlusion of the coronary artery, rats were treated daily with 20 and 75 mg/kg of either atenolol or propranolol for 5 weeks. Sham-operated rats served as controls. Both atenolol and propranolol at 20 and 75 mg/kg doses attenuated the MI-induced cardiac hypertrophy, increases in left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure, LV end-systolic volume and LV end-diastolic volume as well as depressions in LV systolic pressure, LV fractional shortening and cardiac output.
In addition, hepatic lipid levels, lipogenic, and lipidolytic enzyme activities and gene expressions were evaluated.\n\nResults: Both EPA-PL and SOY-PL significantly inhibited body weight gain and white adipose tissue accumulation, alleviated glucose intolerance, and lowered both serum fasting glucose and NEFA levels substantially. Only EPA-PL significantly reduced serum TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels, and
increased serum adiponectin level. EPA-PL was more effective in reducing hepatic and serum TG and TC levels than SOY-PL. Both EPA-PL and SOY-PL reduced the activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes, such as FAS and G6PDH, but only EPA-PL significantly increased CPT, peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes activities and CPT-1a mRNA level. Alterations of hepatic lipogenic gene expressions, such as FAS, G6PDH, ACC, SCD-1 and SREBP-1c were consistent with changes in related enzyme
Fer-1 datasheet activities.\n\nConclusions: According to our study, EPA-PL supplementation was efficacious in suppressing body fat accumulation, and alleviating insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis by modulating the secretion of adipocytokines and inflammatory cytokines, suppression of SREBP-1c Bafilomycin A1 in vitro mediated lipogenesis and enhancement of fatty acid beta-oxidation. These results demonstrate that EPA-PL is a novel beneficial food component for the prevention and improvement of metabolic disorders.”
“Neonatal compartment syndrome is a rare condition mainly involving the upper extremity associated with necrotic lesions. It is often initially misdiagnosed because the skin lesions mimic several other conditions of the newborn. Early diagnosis and timely intervention are of paramount importance to achieve the best outcome. In the present case, we describe a newborn with forearm compartment syndrome owing to being stuck in the birth canal. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Intra-site spatial analysis provides an alternative perspective for understanding the functions
of a site, and the occupational organization of early human living and activities associated with it. We examined features and cultural remains recovered from Locality 2 at Shuidonggou, a Late Paleolithic site, focusing on early PARP signaling occupants’ survival behaviors and settlement patterns, as indicated by evidence regarding the functional organization of the site. Three-dimensional data from unearthed remains (including lithic assemblages, faunal remains, ornaments, etc) were used to reconstruct intra-site use patterns of Cultural Layer 2, which yielded seven earth-pit hearths and tens of thousands of artifacts and bones. We discuss the population size and group composition, as well as the functions of the living spaces, based on the analysis of the hearth patterns and the ostrich eggshell ornaments surround the hearths.
In clinical practice, real-time interpretation is necessary to assist decision- making during the procedure. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the accuracy of real-time pCLE diagnosis made during the procedure with that of blinded offline interpretation to provide accuracy mTOR inhibitor estimates that will aid the planning of future studies.\n\nPatients and methods: pCLE was performed in patients undergoing screening and surveillance colonoscopy. Once
a polyp had been identified, one endoscopist analyzed pCLE images during the procedure and made a provisional “real-time” diagnosis. Saved video recordings were de-identified, randomized, and reviewed “offline” 1 month later by the same endoscopist, who was blinded to the original diagnoses.\n\nResults: Images from a total of 154 polyps were recorded (80 neoplastic, 74 non-neoplastic). The overall accuracy of real-time pCLE diagnosis (accuracy 79%, sensitivity 81%, specificity 76%) and offline pCLE diagnosis
(83%, 88%, and 77%, respectively) for all 154 polyps were similar. Among polyps < 10mm in size, the accuracy of real-time interpretation was significantly lower (accuracy 78%, sensitivity 71%, specificity 83%) than that of offline pCLE interpretation (81%, 86%, 78%, respectively). For polyps >= 10mm, the accuracy of pCLE diagnosis in real-time was better (accuracy 85%, sensitivity 90%, specificity 75%) than offline pCLE JNK inhibitor datasheet diagnosis (81%, 97%, and 50%, respectively).\n\nConclusions: These results suggest that real-time and offline interpretations of pCLE images are moderately accurate. Real-time interpretation is slightly less
accurate than offline diagnosis, but overall both are comparable. Additionally, there was contrasting accuracy between the two methods for small and large polyps.”
“In schizophrenia there is a consistent DMXAA supplier epidemiological finding of a birth excess in winter and spring. Season of birth is thought to act as a proxy indicator for harmful environmental factors during foetal maturation. There is evidence that prenatal exposure to harmful environmental factors may trigger pathologic processes in the neurodevelopment, which subsequently increase the risk of schizophrenia. Since brain white matter alterations have repeatedly been found in schizophrenia, the objective of this study was to investigate whether white matter integrity was related to the season of birth in patients with schizophrenia. Thirty-four patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Differences in the fractional anisotropy maps of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls born in different seasons were analysed with tract-based spatial statistics. A significant main effect of season of birth and an interaction of group and season of birth showed that patients born in summer had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in widespread white matter regions than those born in the remainder of the year.
Accordingly, in this research we calculated reservoir pressure and subtracted it from measured pressure to identify the change in pressure due to forward-or backward-travelling waves.\n\nMethods: In 8 anesthetized dogs, excess pressures were calculated from pressure and flow measurements at 4 locations along the aorta; wave intensity analysis was employed to identify wavefronts NVP-AUY922 purchase and the type of waves.\n\nResults: We found that forward compression and decompression waves generated by the left ventricle are reflected, first, from a negative or “open-end” reflection site near the renal arteries (32.0 +/- 0.8 cm [SEM] from the aortic root) and, second, from a positive site
in the femoral arteries (65.3 +/- 2.8 cm or 54.9 +/- 2.1 cm, based on 2 alternative extrapolation techniques).\n\nConclusions: Aortic wave propagation and reflection can be demonstrated clearly and directly by wave intensity analysis after volume-related changes-changes in reservoir or windkessel pressure-in aortic pressure are accounted for.”
“Aim.\n\nTo investigate the experiences of everyday life after lung transplantation of patients with previous chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).\n\nBackground.\n\nCompared with patients being transplanted due to other indications, those with
COPD prior to lung transplantation report more problems in the form of shortness of breath, fatigue, sexual problems, insomnia and increased appetite. In addition, they are often faced with problems returning to 3MA normal working life. How these problems influence
the patient’s everyday life is unknown.\n\nDesign.\n\nAn exploratory qualitative JQ-EZ-05 price study.\n\nMethods.\n\nTen COPD patients (five females and five males) aged 51-69 and more than six months post transplantation, were interviewed using of a semi-structured interview guide. All interviews were taperecorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis.\n\nFindings.\n\nThe analysis revealed four themes of experience: a second chance; an ordinary life without chronic rejection; even minor daily activities take time with chronic rejection; and need for support and knowledge that were considered important by the participants for their situation and daily life.\n\nConclusions.\n\nThis is the first study describing the experiences of everyday life after lung transplantation of patients with COPD prior to surgery. The findings highlight the importance of addressing these patients’ experiences of gratitude, positive life orientation and informational needs in relation to everyday life.\n\nRelevance to clinical practice.\n\nHealth professionals should be aware of the kind of problems both women and men may experience a long time after the lung transplantation. They constitute a basic knowledge of a patient’s everyday life that is important when planning individual counselling and rehabilitation.
Head lice control strategies and programs that address these negative emotional reactions may prove more effective than current biomedical focus.”
“Objective. This study investigated the effect of contingent electrical stimulation (CES) on present pain intensity (PI),
pressure pain threshold (PPT), and electromyographic events per hour of sleep (EMG/h) on probable bruxers with masticatory myofascial pain.\n\nStudy Design. The study enrolled 15 probable bruxers with masticatory myofascial pain in 3 phases: (1) baseline EMG/h recording, (2) biofeedback treatment using a CES paradigm (active group, n = 7) or inactive device (control group, n = 8), and (3) posttreatment EMG/h recording. PI and PPT were assessed after each phase. Analysis of variance models were used to compare results at a 5% significance level.\n\nResults. Patients in the active group had 35% lower EMG/h in this website P2 and 38.4% lower EMG/h in P3, when compared with baseline. There were no differences in PI or PPT levels at any phase.\n\nConclusions. CES could reduce EMG
activity associated with sleep bruxism in patients with masticatory myofascial pain but did not influence perceived pain.”
“The phase diagram of the CuInSe2-CuGaSe2 selleck chemical pseudobinary system was determined using a combination of special quasirandom structure approach, ab initio density functional theory calculations, and thermodynamic modelling. It is shown that the CuIn1-xGaxSe2 solution phase has a tendency to phase separation at low temperature. The calculated consolute temperature is 485 K. It is found that both the binodal and spinodal curves are significantly asymmetric and on both curves there are a local maximum and a local minimum, which have not been reported
in the previous studies. Our phase diagram can well explain the finding that the inhomogeneity of CuIn0.25Ga0.75Se2 is higher than that of CuIn0.75Ga0.25Se2 at the same temperature, while the previous phase diagrams cannot. Hence, our phase diagram should be more reliable and applicable. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) proteins mediate intrinsic-, or mitochondrial-, AMPK inhibitor initiated apoptosis. We have investigated the structure and function of the least characterized Bcl-2 family member, Bcl-B, solving the crystal structure of a Bcl-B: Bim complex to 1.9 angstrom resolution. Bcl-B is distinguished from other Bcl-2 family members through an insertion of an unstructured loop between helices alpha 5 and alpha 6. Probing Bcl-B interactions with Bcl-2 homology (BH) 3 motifs using a combination of biophysical- and cell-based assays revealed a unique BH3-only protein binding profile. Bcl-B has high-affinity interactions with Bim and Bik only. Our results not only delineate the mode of action of Bcl-B but also complete our understanding of the specific interactions between BH3-only proteins and their prosurvival Bcl-2 counterparts.
The results suggest that
IKK beta-mediated NF-kappa B stimulation in injured primary sensory neurons promotes cytokine and chemokine production and contributes thereby to the development of chronic pain.\n\nPerspective: Inhibitors of click here IKK that do not pass the blood-brain barrier and act only in the periphery might be useful for reduction of the pro-inflammatory response in peripheral DRG neurons and reduce thereby nerve injury-evoked pain without affecting neuroprotective effects of NF-kappa B in the central nervous system. 2012 by the American Pain Society”
“Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family, plays a crucial role in metabolic signaling, with insulin and leptin signaling being well studied. New evidence indicates that PTP1B is also involved in cancer. In the present study, we report on the establishment of a monoclonal antibody specific for catalytic domain of PTP1B (PTP1Bc) generated through the hybridoma method. The monoclonal antibody is measured to have a titer of 4.1 x 10(6) against PTP1Bc in indirect ELISA. Western blot and immunofluorescent analyses indicated that this antibody can specifically combine native PTP1B in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 cells. This monoclonal antibody against PTP1Bc can help enhance the understanding of PTP1B-related physiological and pathological Entinostat ic50 mechanisms and may act as a therapeutic agent for diabetes, obesity, and
cancer in the future.”
“We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2008 to 2009 to evaluate the occurrence of feral and wild cats and the risk of Toxoplasma gondii infection in terrestrial wildlife in a natural area in Illinois, USA. Felids are definitive hosts for T. gondii and cats are a key component EGFR inhibitor of rural and urban
transmission of T. gondii. We selected four forest sites within the interior of the park and four edge sites within 300 m of human buildings. Feline and wildlife occurrence in the natural area was determined with the use of scent stations, motion-detection cameras, and overnight live trapping. Based on scent stations and trapping, feral cats used building sites more than forest sites (scent stations: P=0.010; trapping: P=0.083). Prevalence of T. gondii antibodies was determined with the use of the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) with a titer of 1:25 considered positive; T. gondii antibodies were detected in wildlife at all sites. Wildlife species were classified as having a large home range (LHR) or a small home range (SHR), based on published estimates and using a cutoff of 100 ha. Small-home-range mammals had a higher prevalence of antibody to T. gondii (odds ratio [OR]=4.2; P=0.018) at sites with a high frequency of cat occurrence (defined as =9 cat occurrences across three detection methods); this finding indicates that feral cats are the most likely source of environmental contamination. Overall, the prevalence of antibody to T.