Depending on the choice of the objective function, we formulate two NUM problems: one aiming to maximize the aggregate network utility and another one aiming to maximize the minimum utility among the end-to-end flows to achieve fairness, which is of interest in certain vehicular network applications. Simulation results confirm that we can significantly decrease the average delay at the cost of a small decrease in throughput.
This is achieved by maximizing the aggregate utility in the network when fairness is not the dominant concern. Furthermore, we also show that, even when resource allocation is performed to provide fairness, we can still decrease the maximum end-to-end delay of the network at the cost of a slight decrease in the minimum throughput.”
“Objectives\n\nIn the critical care setting, increasing levels
of midregional proadrenomedullin www.selleckchem.com/products/VX-765.html (MRproADM), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MRproANP), procalcitonin (PCT), copeptin, and proendothelin-1 (proET-1) have been shown to be correlated with increasing severity of sepsis. The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of sepsis biomarkers in an Emergency Department (ED) population.\n\nMethods\n\nThrough selleck chemical a prospective, observational pilot study, we investigated the utility of MRproADM, MRproANP, PCT, copeptin, and proET-1 in predicting a diagnosis of early sepsis in patients presenting to the ED for suspected infection. Data were analyzed using nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-tests, chi(2)-tests, and receiver operating characteristic curves.\n\nResults\n\nOf the 66 patients enrolled in this study, 37 (56.1%) were men, with a median age of 58 years [interquartile range (IQR) 39-69 years], and 19 (28.8%) had a final diagnosis of early sepsis. A higher percentage of sepsis patients compared with no-sepsis patients met systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria at initial presentation (85.7
vs. 41.3%; P < 0.0001) and were admitted to the hospital (84.2 vs. 55.6%; PHA-848125 cost P=0.02). PCT was higher in sepsis patients [median 0.32 ng/ml (IQR 0.19-1.17) vs. 0.18 ng/ml (IQR 0.07-0.54); P=0.04]. There were no differences between groups for MRproADM, MRproANP, copeptin, or proET-1 (P >= 0.53). The C-statistic was maximized with the combination of SIRS criteria and PCT levels (0.92 +/- 0.05), which was better than PCT alone (0.67 +/- 0.08; P=0.005) or SIRS alone (0.75 +/- 0.07; P=0.04).\n\nConclusion\n\nIn this pilot study, we found that the combination of SIRS criteria and PCT levels is useful for the early detection of sepsis in ED patients with suspected infection. Larger studies investigating use of PCT are necessary.