The demographics, symptoms, vital signs, and laboratory test valu

The demographics, symptoms, vital signs, and laboratory test values in the MSSA group (n = 118) and the MRSA group (n = 11) were compared with use of univariate analysis. Multivariate logistic regression with backward stepwise selection was then used to identify independent multivariate predictors of MRSA osteomyelitis, and each of these predictors was subjected to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to determine the optimal cutoff value. Finally, a prediction algorithm selleckchem for differentiating between MRSA and MSSA osteomyelitis on the basis of these independent predictors was constructed.

Results: Patients with MRSA osteomyelitis differed significantly from those with

MSSA osteomyelitis with regard to non-weight-bearing status, antibiotic use at presentation, body temperature, hematocrit value, heart Screening Library high throughput rate, white blood-cell count, platelet count, C-reactive protein level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Four significant independent multivariate predictors were identified: a temperature of >38 degrees C, a hematocrit value of <34%, a white blood-cell count of >12,000 cells/mu L, and a C-reactive protein level of >13 mg/L. The predicted probability of MRSA osteomyelitis, determined on the basis of the number of these predictors that a child satisfied, was 92% for all four predictors, 45% for three, 10% for two, 1% for one,

and 0% for zero predictors. Receiver

operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the number of multivariate predictors, PRT062607 mouse and this analysis revealed a steep shoulder and an area under the curve of 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.00).

Conclusions: Our proposed set of four predictors provided excellent diagnostic performance in differentiating between MRSA and MSSA osteomyelitis in children, and thus would be able to guide patient management and facilitate timely antibiotic selection.”
“Objectives: To evaluate trends and patterns in the prevalence of multiple pharmacy use (MPU) and to describe the number and types of pharmacies used by multiple pharmacy users from 2003 to 2009.

Design: Retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study.

Setting: United States from 2003 to 2009.

Participants 89,941 responses to the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey over 7 years.

Intervention: Analysis of respondent pharmacy use behaviors.

Main outcome measures: Annual use of more than one pharmacy and number and types of pharmacies used.

Results: MPU among patients using medications increased significantly during the study period (from 36.4% [95% CI 35.2-37.6] in 2003 to 43.2% [41.9-44.4] in 2009) a relative increase of 18.7% (P = 0.01). Multiple pharmacy users used between 2 and 17 different pharmacies per year to obtain prescription medications.

11.6-15.8 mg GAE/g DM) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (32.2

11.6-15.8 mg GAE/g DM) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (32.2-40.2 mg AAE/g DM vs. 20.5-25.6 mg AAE/g DM) (p<0.05). The total flavanol and proanthocyanidin contents were ranged from 31.0 to 61.2 mg CE/g DM and 8.0 to 24.1 mg/g DM, respectively for the five WGP varieties. This study demonstrated that the skins of WGP can be ideal sources of DF rich in bioactive compounds. (C) 2011

Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) have yielded improved outcomes compared with pulsatile flow devices for patients on long-term support. However, significant rates of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) have been observed during CF-LVAD support.

METHODS: From March 2006 through March 2011, 86 patients with chronic heart failure underwent implantation of a CF-LVAD (Heart Mate II; Thoratec Corp., PRIMA-1MET Pleasanton, CA). Records were reviewed to determine the prevalence of post-implant GIB, location of the bleeding site and associated morbidity and mortality. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify independent predictors of GIB.

RESULTS: GIB occurred in 19 patients (22.1%) with a duration of support that ranged from 5 to 456 days. Sources of GIB included small bowel and rectum in 6 patients each, large bowel in 2 patients and stomach in 1 patient. No definite source was identified in 4 patients. There were no deaths referable to GIB. Recurrent GIB occurred in 4 patients. History of a GIB prior

to LVAD implant was the only variable significantly different between

patients with and without post-implant GIB (21.1% vs 10.4%, p = 0.016), and was the only independent predictor of GIB (OR = 2.24, 95% CI 2.121 Alvocidib molecular weight to 2.435, p = 0.004).

CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal bleeding is a frequent source of morbidity for patients on Heart Mate II LVAD support but does not significantly impact survival. As implantation of CF-LVADs with non-pulsatile flow gains popularity for both bridge-to-transplant and destination therapy, a better understanding of the pathophysiology of GIB in these patients will be needed for minimizing this complication. J Heart Lung Transplant 2012;31:715-8 (C) 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“Purposes In this study, we sought to establish the value of a new molecule, urocortin (Ucn), in the diagnosis KPT-8602 ic50 of endometrioma and compare with Ca-125 to identify superiority of urocortin.

Methods Of the patients operated on at our hospital with the initial diagnosis of adnexal mass, 88 patients whose pathology results were endometrioma and benign ovarian cyst were included in the study. As a result of the pathological examination, the patients were assessed in two groups. Group 1 consisted of 42 cases of endometrioma and Group 2 included 46 cases of benign ovarian cyst (control group). The serum Ucn and CA 125 levels of patients were measured from the blood samples drawn prior to the operation.

Results While the serum Ucn level was 4.

However, since the establishment of its role in cell cycle arrest

However, since the establishment of its role in cell cycle arrest, damage repair, and apoptosis (thus also establishing its importance in cancer development), numerous reports have demonstrated additional functions of p53 in various cells. In particular, p53 appears to

have important functions as it relates to neurodegeneration and synaptic plasticity. Objective: In this review, we will address p53 functions as it relates to various neurodegenerative diseases, mainly its implications in the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Conclusion: p53 plays a pivotal role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases through its interaction with cellular factors, viral factors, and/or small RNAs that have the ability to promote the development of these diseases. Hence, inhibition of p53 may present an ideal target to restore neuronal functions. Copyright (C) 2011 selleck S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Vocal ford paralysis is a condition often seen in otolaryngologic adult and pediatric clinics. We report a case we believe to be the youngest child to undergo ansa cervicalis (ansa) to recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) reinnervation for unilateral vocal fold paralysis. We have included the preoperative and postoperative videostroboscopic

and acoustic findings. The acoustic data shows improvement and Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor is consistent with the patient’s improved voice quality. Most notably the patient’s voice quality is less raspy and his volume has improved while subjectively requiring less effort. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Context: Well-known causes of a cicatrizing ectropion are chemical/thermal injuries, dermatitis, cutaneous diseases, malignancies, and trauma. We add to this preceding list a systemic cause of a cicatrizing ectropion as a result of a rare side effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a common and frequently used chemotherapeutic agent.

Methods: A case report demonstrating the clinical presentation of a cicatricial ectropion caused by (5-FU) chemotherapy toxicity in a patient with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency. We also describe

the subsequent investigations and management of this case.

Results: click here A bilateral cicatrizing lower lid ectropion, bilateral upper lid shortening, cicatrizing and sclerosing facial skin changes occurred in an 80-year-old male, undergoing preoperative chemoradiotherapy, incorporating Capecitabine, an oral 5-FU prodrug for a locally advanced rectal carcinoma. Severe 5-FU toxicity ultimately proved fatal but in addition to typical 5-FU related adverse effects, the patient developed bilateral incomplete lid closure, secondary corneal exposure and keratopathy. Due to the patient’s extreme ill health, he was managed conservatively with a moist chamber.

Conclusion: 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy in patients with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency, can give rise to ocular and cutaneous toxicity.

This phenomenon may contribute to the remarkable rise in blood pr

This phenomenon may contribute to the remarkable rise in blood pressure early in the morning, possibly increasing the vulnerability of these patients to cardiovascular events.”

The objectives of this study were to verify the degree of anxiety, respiratory distress, and health-related quality of life in a group of asthmatic patients who have experienced previous panic attacks. Additionally, we evaluated if a respiratory physiotherapy program (breathing retraining) improved both asthma and panic disorder symptoms, resulting in an improvement in the health-related quality of life of asthmatics.

METHODS: Asthmatic individuals were assigned to a chest physiotherapy group that included a breathing retraining program held Compound C once a week for three months

or a paired control group that included a Subtle Touch program. All patients were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, the Quality of Life Questionnaire, and spirometry parameter measurements.

RESULTS: Both groups had high marks for panic disorder and agoraphobia, which limited their quality of life. The Breathing Retraining Group program improved the clinical control of asthma, reduced panic symptoms and agoraphobia, decreased patient scores on the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, and improved their quality of life. Spirometry parameters were unchanged.

CONCLUSION: Breathing retraining improves the clinical control of asthma and anxiety symptoms check details and the health-related quality of life in asthmatic patients.”
“Liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation of FTA-94 industrial sweetpotatoes (ISPs) were examined using a-amylase and glucoamylase for the production of ethanol. Starch

degradation and sugars produced over time were examined for (1) alpha-amylase (Liquozyme SC) at different loading rates (0.045, 0.45, and 4.5% KNU-S/g dry ISP) during liquefaction: and (2) three glucoamylases (Spirizyme Fuel, Spirizyme Plus Tech, and Spirizyme Ultra) at different loading rates (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 AGU/g dry ISP) during saccharification. The majority of starch, DMH1 47.7 and 65.4% of dry matter, was converted during liquefaction of flour and fresh sweetpotato preparations, respectively, with the addition of 0.45 KNU-S/g dry ISP of Liquozyme SC after 2 h (66.4 and 80.1% initial starch in dry matter, respectively). The enzymes used during saccharification increased starch breakdown, but was more effective in conversion of short chain carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. The addition of 5.0 AGU/g of Spirizyme Ultra after 48 h produced 795.4 and 685.3 mg glucose/g starch with flour and fresh preparations, respectively. Yeast fermentation on hydrolyzed starch was examined over time with and without the addition of salt nutrients. Yeast converted all fermentable sugar (e.g.

6%) than the other three groups (NS 10%; D 14.3% and M10%). After

6%) than the other three groups (NS 10%; D 14.3% and M10%). After adjusting for baseline differences, mean magnitude of improvement of the outcome measures were significantly greater Nepicastat research buy in PNS compared to the other groups. Patients classified as PNS have a more favourable prognosis following neural mobilisation compared to the other groups.”
“The main goal of the present study is to evaluate the effects of enzymatic pre-treatment on the yields, chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of Thymus capitatus and Rosmarinus officinalis leaves. In T. capitatus, application of cellulase, hemicellulase and combination of both enzymes

induced 63.55, 23.72 and 109% increase in the essential oil yields. It also induced increment by 2.7, 31 and 38% in the amount of its main component carvacrol. In R. officinalis, enzymatic treatment resulted in enhanced oil yields by 5,50 and 20% for cellulase, hemicellulase and the combination of both enzymes, respectively. In contrast to T. capitatus, the amount of the main component 1,8-cineole dropped by 17.73, 36.92 and 15.46% in oils extracted from cellulase, hemicellulase and cellulose/hemicellulase treated samples of R. officinalis. At the same time, the essential oils (at 1/32 and 1/4 dilution for T. capitatus and R. officinalis, respectively) were evaluated for their antimicrobial

activities Dactolisib research buy against 6 food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus feacium and Candida albicans). All investigated oils exhibited antimicrobial activity with those issued from hemicellulase treated samples being the most effective. Enzymatic pre-treatment buy AG-014699 could be useful for enhancing

yield and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils, and hold a good potential for use in food and pharmaceutical industries. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: Polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers attached to biotherapeutic molecules enhance in vivo delivery and stability of these large molecular weight drugs. However, these polymers may by themselves be immunogenic and elicit antibodies that can reduce the efficacy of the drug and contribute to potential patient morbidity. A double antigen bridging ELISA immunogenicity assay for the detection of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) specific to PEG polymers of various sizes has been developed. Methods: Hapten-labeled conjugate of 40 kDa PEG polymer was synthesized and used in a double antigen bridging ELISA. The hapten-labeled PEG is incubated with the patient sample, then this mixture is added to a 96-well microplate precoated with 40 kDa PEG, allowing PEG-specific ADA to form a bridge complex with the PEG conjugate and the PEG coated on the microplate. After incubation, the reaction mixture is removed and replaced by horseradish peroxidase (HRP)labeled anti-hapten antibody.

We found that the S74E mutation in Medicago ROP6 and Arabidopsis

We found that the S74E mutation in Medicago ROP6 and Arabidopsis ROP4 prevented the binding of these proteins to their plant-specific upstream activator the plant-specific ROP nucleotide exchanger (PRONE)-domain-containing RopGEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor) protein and abolished the PRONE-mediated nucleotide exchange reaction in vitro. Structural modeling supported the hypothesis that potential phosphorylation of the S74 residue interferes with the binding of the PRONE-domain to the

adjacent plant-specific R76 residue Torin 1 mw which plays an important role in functional ROP-PRONE interaction. Moreover, we show that while the binding of constitutively active MsROP6 to the effector protein RIC (ROP-interactive CRIB-motif-containing protein) was not affected by the S74E mutation, the capability of this mutated protein to bind and activate the RRK1 kinase in vitro was reduced. These observations are in agreement with the morphology of tobacco pollen tubes expressing mutant forms of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP):MsROP6. The S74E mutation in MsROP6 had no influence on pollen tube morphology and attenuated the phenotype of a constitutively active form of MsROP6. The presented Medicago and Arabidopsis data support the notion that the phosphorylation of the serine residue in ROPs corresponding to S74 in Medicago ROP6 could be

a general principle for regulating ROP activation and signaling in plants.”
“Separation of rare cells from blood stream using paramagnetic/superparamagnetic

Fer-1 supplier beads in microfluidic device has gained importance in recent years for early diagnosis of several critical diseases. However, the performance of immunomagnetophoretic cell sorters (ICS) crucially depends on their design and operational conditions. Here, we present a three-dimensional CFD model based on the Navier-Stokes equations governing the fluid dynamics and continuum descriptions MLN2238 inhibitor for the cell, bead and cell-bead complexes for a continuous ICS. The spatial-temporal evolution of the concentration fields are governed by convection-diffusion equations for non-magnetic cells and Nernst-Planck type equations for beads and cell-bead(s) complexes. The attachment rates between cells, cell-bead(s) complexes and beads are deduced from the collision probabilities which are derived by means of classical scattering theory. The CFD model is used to investigate the performance of a generic continuous cell separation system. Since the cells are larger in diameter, more than one bead can get attached to the cells. Multiple beads binding to the cell has been considered in this study, which has not been reported in literature till date. Exemplarily, we investigate the performance of Y-shaped geometry used for contacting of cells and beads. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The HPTLC analysis of the EA fraction revealed that it mainly con

The HPTLC analysis of the EA fraction revealed that it mainly contains GA and ferulic acid (FA) as major phenolics, and the higher antioxidant activities of EA fraction may be due to the PXD101 research buy presence of these compounds.”
“Lack of data on the in vivo morphology and morphometry of the normal adult coccyx hampers understanding

of radiological abnormalities in idiopathic coccydynia. The aim of this study was to investigate normal adult sacrococcygeal morphometry.

Retrospective analysis of 112 adult CT scans (mean age 63 +/- A 14.6 years, 50 males) evaluated the following: number of coccygeal segments; joint fusion; coccygeal spicules, subluxation, sacralization, and scoliosis; sacrococcygeal straight and curved lengths and curvature indices; SBE-β-CD manufacturer sacrococcygeal and intercoccygeal angles; and lateral deviation of the coccyx


Four coccygeal segments were present in 76 % of scans. Sacrococcygeal fusion was present in 57 % and intercoccygeal fusion was increasingly common more caudally; there was no significant association with age or gender. A bony spicule was present in 23 %. Subluxation was rare. Nine of 12 coccyges with a retroverted tip were female. Mean coccygeal curved length was 4.4 +/- A 0.8 cm in men and 4.0 +/- A 0.8 cm in women (P < 0.01). Mean angle between first and last coccygeal segments was 138A degrees A A +/- A 25A degrees in men and 147A degrees A A +/- A 25A degrees in women (P = 0.08). There was no significant correlation between coccygeal NVP-LDE225 concentration length or curvature and stature, age or BMI.

In this first detailed study of the CT morphology and morphometry of the adult coccyx, sacrococcygeal and intercoccygeal joint fusion was common. Female coccyges were

shorter, straighter, and may be more prone to retroversion, factors that may be relevant to the markedly higher prevalence of idiopathic coccydynia in women.”
“There is an increasing interest in using pomegranate juice as a natural antioxidant rather than synthetic compounds. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of probioticated and nonprobioticated aril juices of sweet (SWV) and sour (SV) pomegranate cultivars were determined by two different methods: ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl assay. Total counts of Lactobacillus casei GG increased by about 3 log in SWV and 2 log in SV juices after incubation for 48 h. Probiotication improved the antioxidant activity of SWV juice from 74.4% to 91.82%, and SV juice from 82.64% to 97.8%. Based on the FRAP value, the reducing power of the probioticated pomegranate juices was also much stronger than the nonprobioticated juices. The FRAP values for SWV and SV probioticated juices were 97.34 and 120.7 mmol L-1, respectively, which were notably higher than 85.87 and 93.4 mmol L-1 for SWV and SV nonprobioticated juices.

Revaccination of group C calves on day 35 induced IgA production.

Revaccination of group C calves on day 35 induced IgA production. lntranasal vaccination with a modified-live virus vaccine was effective in calves that had maternally derived antibodies. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;240:1231-1240)”
“The operation

of visible-sensitive gaseous and to some extent, vacuum-photomultipliers is critically affected by secondary electrons originating from ion impact on the photocathode. A simple method for indirect measurement of the effective ion-induced secondary-electron emission (IISEE) coefficient from the photocathode into a gas medium gamma(eff)(+) was developed. The experimental results with visible-sensitive K-Cs-Sb, Na-K-Sb, and Cs-Sb photocathodes, yielded gamma(eff)(+)-values between 0.02 and 0.03 in Ar/CH(4)(95/5) at 700 mbar; these are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. The corresponding vacuum IISEE Fer-1 concentration GKT137831 coefficients gamma(+) were estimated, based on a theoretical model, to be 0.47, 0.49, and 0.47 for K-Cs-Sb, Na-K-Sb, and Cs-Sb photocathodes, respectively. The ratio of gas gamma(eff)(+) and vacuum gamma(+) IISEE coefficients, calculated to be similar to 0.06, is the fraction of secondary electrons surmounted the backscattering in the gas media. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3197063]“
“Background: The diagnosis of the impaired left ventricle (LV) diastolic function during atrial fibrillation (AF) using

traditional methods is very difficult. Natriuretic peptides seem to be useful for assessment of diastolic function in patients with AF.

Aim: To evaluate

the influence of LV diastolic dysfunction on natriuretic peptides concentrations and to assess the diagnostic value of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients with AF and impaired LV diastolic function.

Methods: The study included 42 patients (23 males, 19 females), aged 58.6 +/- 8.2 years with nonvalvular persistent AF with preserved LV systolic function who were converted into sinus rhythm by DC cardioversion (CV) and maintained sinus rhythm PCI-34051 datasheet for at least 30 days. Echocardiography (ECG), ANP, and BNP level measurements were taken at baseline 24 hours before CV and 24 hours and 30 days after CV. On the 30th day following CV in patients with sinus rhythm, Doppler ECG was performed to assess LV diastolic function.

Results: Thirty days after CV, normal LV diastolic function in 15 patients and impaired diastolic function in 27 patients was diagnosed: 20 with impaired LV relaxation and seven with impaired LV compliance. During AF and 24 hours, and 30 days after sinus rhythm restoration, significantly higher ANP and BNP levels were observed in patients with LV diastolic dysfunction as compared to the subgroup with normal LV diastolic function. The average values of ANP during AF in patients with normal and impaired diastolic function were 167.3 +/- 70.1 pg/mL and 298.7 +/- 83.6 pg/mL, respectively (P < 0.

BIS, Richmond

Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS), electromyo

BIS, Richmond

Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS), electromyography, and heart rate variability, as a test of autonomic function, were measured for 45 minutes during daily SATs. Data were evaluated with analysis of variance, linear regression, and nonparametric tests.

Results: The BIS wave form coincided almost exactly with propofol on/off. Steady-state BIS correlated with RASS (p < 0.0001) and with propofol dose (p < 0.0001), but the strengths of association were relatively low (all r(2) < 0.5). BIS wave form was not altered by age, heart rate, or heart rate variability and was similar with propofol alone or propofol plus midazolam, but the presence of brain injury or the use of paralytics shifted the curve downward (both p < 0.001). The overall test characteristics for BIS versus RASS without neuromuscular blockade were sensitivity: 90% versus 77% (p = 0.034); specificity: 90% versus 75% (p = 0.021); positive predictive selleck kinase inhibitor value: 90% versus 76% (p = 0.021), and negative predictive value: 90% versus 76% (p = 0.021).

Conclusions: In the first trial in trauma patients and largest trial in any surgical population, the (1) BIS was reliable and has advantages over RASS of being continuous and objective, at least during a propofol SAT; (2) BIS interpretation remains somewhat subjective in patients receiving paralytic agents or with traumatic brain injury.”
“Conversion of synthesis gas (CO and H-2)

to ethanol can be an alternative, promising technology to produce biofuels from renewable biomass. To distinguish microbial utilization of carbon source between fructose and synthesis gas PXD101 manufacturer CO and to evaluate biological production of ethanol from CO, we adopted the C-13-enrichment of the CO substrate and hypothesized that the residual increase in delta C-13

of the cell biomass would reflect the increased contribution of C-13-enriched CO. Addition of synthesis gas to live culture medium for ethanol fermentation by Clostridum ljungdahlii increased the microbial growth and ethanol production. Despite the high C-13-enrichment in CO (99 atom % C-13), however, microbial delta C-13 increased relatively small compared to the microbial growth. The uptake efficiency of CO estimated using the isotope mass balance equation was also very low: 0.0014 % for the low CO and 0.0016 selleck chemicals % for the high CO treatment. Furthermore, the fast production of ethanol in the early stage indicated that the presence of sugar in fermentation medium would limit the utilization of CO as a carbon source by C. ljungdahlii.”
“Objective: To investigate the impact of age at diagnosis and age at onset of intervention on language outcomes in children with hearing impairments.

Methods: Receptive and expressive language outcomes of a sample of 63 children (mean age 5;1 years) with hearing loss (mean 78 dB, SD 25.3) enrolled in the only specific early intervention program in Upper Austria were assessed.

Results: There were main effects of Dose and Dose x Day interacti

Results: There were main effects of Dose and Dose x Day interactions on virtually all quantified parameters selleckchem in both strains of mice. In contrast, there were relatively

few Dose x Strain and three-way interactions. Strain-related interactions involved changes in circulating phagocytic populations, erythrocytes, and liver mass.

Conclusion: The data demonstrate that genetic background can modify certain immune-related parameters after exposure to heavy particle radiation. The possible implications of these findings are discussed.”
“Melt/solid state polycondensation (MP/SSP) is a cost-effective route for synthesis of high molecular weight poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA). However, the reaction rates in its four stages need to be enhanced greatly and the reaction times to be shortened largely before the MP/SSP technology can be industrialized. In this study, a new catalyst addition policy, i.e., adding TSA at the dehydration stage and SnCl(2)center dot 2H(2)O at the MP stage, and more appropriate temperature and pressure programs were presented and applied in the MP process of LLA. The presence of TSA from dehydration appeared very effective for speeding up the dehydration and oligomerization stages as well as depressing racemization in

the whole MP process. The polymerization degree (X(n)) of oligomer was clearly increased, and the reaction time was shortened to a great extent. Direct using reduced pressure was also very helpful for intensifying the dehydration stage, only leading to LLA

loss as learn more little as 2%. A PLLA with M(w) of 44,000 and optical purity of 96.8% suitable for subsequent SSP was produced after dehydration for 2 h, oligomerization for 2 h and MP for 4 h under appropriate conditions. And an interesting strong dependence of the M(w) of final PLLA product on the X(n) of the oligomer was observed. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 2780-2785, 2011″
“It is generally believed that there is no simple relationship between ultimate fracture strength and stiffness for an elastically isotropic material. By taking bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) as model materials, the relation between ultimate fracture strength and elastic moduli was analyzed within Griffith theory framework. The observed correlation between elastic moduli and fracture strength in BMGs reveals the effects of BMG defects and plastic zone size on the crack resistance of these model materials. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3544202]“
“Materials and methods: Dehydrated tardigrades of the species R. coronifer were irradiated with 2.55 MeV (megaelectronvolts) protons at doses ranging from 500 gray (Gy) to 15,000 Gy, to investigate the dose-viability relationship. In addition, a focused proton microbeam was utilised to determine the areal mass distribution, using the ion beam analytical technique STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy).

Results: The experiment suggests that R.